World Sports: A Reference Handbook

World Sports: A Reference Handbook

by Maylon Hanold


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This book covers a wide range of issues and controversies within the world of sports—including drug use, economics, ethics, ethnicity, gender, globalization, politics, race, sexuality, and technology—from both a U.S. and global perspective.

• A chronology of important events or innovations in sports

• A list of important sports organizations with descriptions of each

• A glossary of relevant terms such as "blood doping"

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781598847789
Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
Publication date: 07/19/2012
Series: Contemporary World Issues
Pages: 304
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Maylon Hanold, EdD, is instructor/lecturer in sport administration and leadership at Seattle University, WA. Hanold holds a doctorate in leadership and sport from Seattle University.

Table of Contents

List of Tables xv

List of Figures xvii

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxiii

1 Background and History 1

The Meaning and Cultural Significance of Sport 1

Competitive Nature 2

Aesthetics of Movement 2

Sociocultural Basis of Sport in the Pre-Modern World 4

The Industrial Revolution and the Development of Physical Culture in the Modern World 6

Globalization and Sports 8

The 1930s: Bringing Sport into the Modern Age 8

The Rise of International Sport Organizations 9

International Sport, Economics, and the "Golden Triangle" 10

Sports and Business: Major Historical Trends of This Symbiotic Relationship 11

The Marginalizing and Privileging Power of Sport: A Historical Perspective of Social Issues 18

Women and Sport 18

Sexuality and Sport 21

Race and Ethnicity 23

Social Class 26

2 Sport Issues Worldwide 31

Sport and Politics 31

Issues and Controversies with the "Sport for Development" Movement 35

The Business of Hosting the Olympic Games 39

The Controversy and Complexity of Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport 43

Technology in Sports: Tilting the Competitive Balance for Better and/or Worse 47

Globalization of Sport: Intersections with Race and Ethnicity 50

Masculinity: What's Sport Got To Do with It? 54

Violence and (Un)Sportsmanship Behaviors in Sport 61

Sport and Women: The Complexities of Gender 64

The Dynamic, Changing Landscape of the Sports and Media Relationship 70

3 North American Sport 79

Bidding for and Hosting the Super Bowl 79

Player Salary Debates among Professional Sports Teams 83

The Commercialism of Intercollegiate Athletics 87

Racial Diversity and Racism in Collegiate and Professional Sports 90

Gender (In)equity in Sport Leadership 97

NASCAR: Hanging onto "Local" Roots While Going "Global" 101

Concussions and Brain Trauma: Growing Concerns, Growing Knowledge 106

The Culture of Skateboarding and the Commodification of "Cool" 109

The Lure of "Lifestyle" Sports: A Case Study in Ultrarunning 113

4 Chronology 121

The Rise of Modern Sport 122

Sport as a Business 125

The Growth of Sport Professionals 130

Sport: Politics, Social Issues, and Developments 132

5 Biographical Sketches 139

Kate Ackerman, MD 139

John Uzoma Ekwugha Amaechi 140

Eric Anderson 140

Roone Pickney Arledge Jr. 141

Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister 142

Charles Wade Barkley 143

Avery Brundage 143

John Wesley Carlos 144

Bill Colson 145

Bob Costas 146

David Costill 147

Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi 147

Horst Dassler 148

Pierre de Coubertin 149

Richard Giulianotti 149

Pat Griffin 150

Benjamin Sinclair "Ben" Johnson 151

Billie Jean King 151

Össur Kristinsson 152

Donna Lopiano 153

Rainer Martens 154

Mark McCormack 154

Jeremy McGhee 155

Andy Miah 156

William Morgan 156

Fred Northrup 157

Christopher Nowinski 157

Oscar Leonard Carl Pistorius 158

Katherine Redmond 159

Jackie Robinson 160

Juan Antonio Samaranch 161

Robert Edward "Ted" Turner III 161

6 Data and Documents 163

The Phenomenon of Sport: Global Participation and North American Trends 163

The Business of Sport 173

Politics, Performance, and Ethics in Sport 182

Politics 183

Olympic Boycotts and Politics 183

Performance 189

Ethics 191

The Code for Living 197

Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in Sport 198

7 Directory of Organizations 211

Professional Sport Organizations 212

Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 212

Major League Baseball (MLB) 212

National Association of Stock Car Racing (NASCAR) 212

National Basketball Association (NBA) 213

National Football League (NFL) 213

National Hockey League (NHL) 213

Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) 214

Women's Professional Soccer (WPS) 214

Women's Tennis Association (WTA) 214

Amateur Athletic Organizations 215

American Ultrarunning Association (AUA) 215

Boston Athletic Association (BAA) 215

International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) 215

International Association of Ultrarunners (LAU) 216

International Olympic Committee (IOC) 216

International Skateboarding Federation 216

International Triathlon Union (ITU) 217

London 2012 217

National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) 217

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) 218

National Skateboard Association (NSA) 218

Sochi 2014 218

United States Olympic Committee (USOC) 219

Youth Sport Organizations 219

Boys and Girls Clubs of America 219

National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) 220

National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) 220

National Program for Playground Safety (NPPS) 220

National Youth Sports Safety Foundation (NYSSF) 221

President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition 221

Sports Business and Media 221

American Bar Association Forum on the Entertainment and Sports Industries 221

Associated Press Sports Editors (APSE) 222

Association of Luxury Suite Directors (ALSD) 222

Association of Professional Sales Agents (Sport and Leisure Industries) (APSA) 223

Federation of Sports and Play Association (FSPA) 223

Information Display and Entertainment Association (IDEA) 223

IMG Worldwide 224

International Association for Sport Information (IASI) 224

International Association of Skateboard Companies(IASC) 224

International Association of Venue Managers (IAVM) 225

International Ticketing Association (INTTX) 225

National Sporting Goods Association (NSGA) 226

Outdoor Industry Association (OIA) 226

Sports Lawyers Association (SLA) 226

Organizations Dedicated to Sports Medicine, Injury, Rehabilitation, and Psychology 227

American Alliance for Health, Education, Recreation, and Dance (AAHPERD) 227

American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) 227

American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) 228

Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) 228

Exercise and Sport Science Australia (ESSA) 228

Human Kinetics (HK) 229

International Federation of Sports Medicine (FIMS) 229

International Sports Sciences Association (ISSA) 229

National Academy of Kinesiology (NAK) 230

National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) 230

National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research 230

National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) 231

North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity (NASPSPA) 231

Sport for Development, Character, Ethical Behavior, and Athletes' Rights 232

American Sport Education Program (ASEP) 232

Athletes for a Better World (ABW) 232

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) 232

Citizenship through Sports Alliance 233

Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) 233

Institute for International Sport (IIS) 234

International Olympic Academy (IOA) 234

International Olympic Truce Center 234

International Platform on Sport and Development 235

National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA) 235

National Consortium for Academics and Sports (NCAS) 235

People to People Sport Ambassadors 236

Sport Management Resources (SMR) 236

Sports Legacy Institute 236

United Nations Office on Sport for Development and Peace 237

United States Anti Doping Association (USADA) 237

World Anti Doping Association (WADA) 237

Organizations Representing Marginalized Groups in Sport 238

Australian Women's Sport and Recreation Association 238

Black Coaches and Administrators (BCA) 238

Black Entertainment and Sport Lawyers Association (BESLA) 239

Black Sports Agents Association (BSAA) 239

Black Women in Sport Foundation (BWSF) 239

Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport (CAAWS) 240

Center for the Study of Sports in Society 240

Challenged Athletes Foundation 240

Disabled Sports USA (DS/USA) 241

Federation of Gay Games 241

Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport 241

International Association for Physical Education for Girls and Women (IAPESGW) 242

International Paralympic Committee (IPC) 242

National Association of Collegiate Women Athletic Administrators (NACWAA) 242

North American Gay Amateur Athletic Alliance (NAGAAA) 243

Special Olympics 243

The Women's Sports Foundation (WSF) 244

United States Association of Blind Athletes(USABA) 244

United States Paralympic Team 244

USA Deaf Sports Federation 245

Wheelchair and Ambulatory Sports USA (WASUSA) 245

Women's Basketball Coaches Association (WBCA) 245

Women in Sports and Events (WISE) 246

8 Print and Nonprint Resources 247

Print Resources 247

Overview of Sport 247

Sport Business 250

Sport Professionals, Technology, and Health 256

Sport Issues: Character, Youth, High

Performance, Politics, and Ethics 261

Sport Issues: Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Sexuality, and Different Abilities 269

Nonprint Resources 276

General Sport 276

Sport Business and Sport Professionals 277

Social, Political, and Ethical Issues in Sport 280

Glossary 287

Index 293

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