ISBN-10:
1449642187
ISBN-13:
9781449642181
Pub. Date:
10/08/2013
Publisher:
Jones & Bartlett Learning
Wilderness First Aid: Emergency Care in Remote Locations / Edition 4

Wilderness First Aid: Emergency Care in Remote Locations / Edition 4

by American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS)
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Overview

Wilderness First Aid: Emergency Care in Remote Locations, Fourth Edition provides information on how to handle common injuries and illnesses when medical care is an hour away or more. Designed for those who work or travel in remote locations, this comprehensive guide will teach you what to look for and what to do in the event of an emergency, and direct you to the most appropriate type of care. Completely revised, the Fourth Edition contains updated information on first aid training and meets the 2010 cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) guidelines.

The text also includes:

• Expanded information on heat and cold emergencies
• Updated guidelines for managing snake bite emergencies
• New information on managing diabetic emergencies
• Skill sheets providing step-by-step visual reviews of procedures discussed
• Flow charts reinforcing the decision-making process and appropriate procedures
• Decision tables provide a concise summary of what signs first aiders should look for and what treatment steps they should take
• Outstanding photography and illustrations

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781449642181
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Publication date: 10/08/2013
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 352
Sales rank: 1,057,337
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Brigham Young University

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Wilderness First Aid 1

What Is Wilderness? 1

What Is Wilderness First Aid? 2

Legal and Ethical Issues 4

Psychological and Emotional Issues 5

Infectious Disease Precautions 6

Immunizations 7

Travel Medical Insurance 8

Chapter 2 Action at an Emergency 9

Approaching a Victim 10

Mechanism (Cause) of Injury 11

Getting to Victims 11

Motor Vehicle Crashes 14

Wildland Fires 14

Animals 16

Confined Spaces 16

Moving a Victim 17

Extrication From Difficult Locations 20

Seeking Help 23

Guidelines for Evacuation 25

Signaling for Help 26

Chapter 3 Victim Assessment and Urgent Care 29

Assessment 29

Scene Size-up 30

Primary Assessment 33

History Taking 36

Physical Exam 38

Reassessment 45

Multiple-Victim Incidents (Triage) 46

Chapter 4 Care of Bleeding, Wounds, and Burns 48

Controlling Bleeding 48

Types of Wounds 51

Cleaning a Wound 52

Wound Irrigation 52

Evaluating Function 53

Wound Closure 53

Wound Infection 54

Special Wounds 56

Blisters 57

Closed Wounds-Bruises 58

Impaled (Embedded) Objects 59

Gunshot Wounds 63

Wounds Requiring Evacuation 65

Burn Classification 65

Electrical Burns 68

Sunburn 69

Chapter 5 Dressings and Bandages 73

Dressings 73

Bandages 74

Applying and Removing a Dressing 75

Bandaging Techniques 77

Chapter 6 Head and Facial Injuries 83

Scalp Wounds 84

Facial Wounds 84

Facial Fracture 85

Contact Lenses 86

Dry Eye 87

Infection 87

Nonpenetrating Injury 87

Foreign Body 88

Scratch 89

Ultraviolet Burn (Snow Blindness) 90

Chemical Burn 90

Bruising 91

Frozen Eyelashes 91

Open Injury (Penetrating) 91

Impaled Object 92

Eyelid Injury 92

What to Look For 92

What to Do 93

Lost Eyeglasses 93

Foreign Body in the Ear 93

Nosebleed 94

Broken Nose 94

Swallowed Foreign Body 95

Fracture 95

Dislocation 96

Cuts on the Lips and Tongue 97

Toothache 98

Cavities 98

Abscess 98

Avulsed (Knocked-Out) Tooth 99

Chapter 7 Bone, Joint, and Muscle injuries 104

Assessment 105

Treatment 107

Open Fractures 112

Dislocations 112

Sprains 113

Strains and Tendon Injuries 113

Muscle Cramps 114

Chapter 8 Specific Bone and Joint Injuries 117

Shoulder Injury 118

Shoulder Dislocation 120

Upper Arm Injury 124

Elbow Injury 124

Lower Arm Injury 126

Hand Injury 127

Finger Dislocation and Fractures 127

Hip Injury 130

Pelvic Injury 132

Thigh Injury 132

Knee Injury 133

Lower Leg injury 135

Ankle Injury 136

Foot Injury 138

Toe Injury 138

Assessing and Treating Spinal Injuries 139

Moving a Victim With a Spinal Injury 142

When to Remove Spine Immobilization 143

Chapter 9 Circulatory Emergencies 148

Anatomy and Physiology 148

Shock 149

Internal Bleeding 151

Heart Disease and Chest Pain 152

Chapter 10 Respiratory Emergencies 155

Assessment and Treatment of Chest Injuries 157

Rib Fractures 158

Pneumothorax or Hemothorax 158

Tension Pneumothorax 159

Open Injury 160

Chest Pain 162

Chest Wall Pain 163

Asthma 163

Colds 164

Bronchitis 165

Pneumonia 165

Benign Hyperventilation 165

Chapter 11 Neurologic Emergencies 171

Causes and Treatment for Unresponsive Conditions 173

Concussion 177

Head Injury With Delayed Deterioration 178

Severe Diffuse Brain Injury 178

Skull Fractures 179

Stroke 180

Seizures 181

Simple Fainting 183

Headache 185

Migraine 186

Diabetes 186

Chapter 12 Abdominal Emergencies 190

Closed Injuries 191

Open Injuries 193

Hernia 195

Pain 196

Appendicitis 197

Nausea and Vomiting 197

Diarrhea 198

Constipation 199

Bloody Stools and Hemorrhoids 200

Chapter 13 Diabetic Emergencies and Allergic Reactions 205

Diabetes 206

Acute Complications of Diabetes 207

Severe Allergic Reactions (Anaphylactic Shock) 211

Allergic Rhinitis 213

Hives 213

Chapter 14 Genitourinary Problems 216

Vaginitis 217

Vulvar Irritation 218

Problems With Urination 218

Missed Menses 219

Heavy or Prolonged Vaginal Bleeding 219

Vaginal Bleeding While on Hormonal Contraceptives 220

Vaginal Bleeding During Pregnancy 220

Low Abdominal Pain 221

Pain Due to Infections 221

Pain With Internal Bleeding From Ruptured Cyst or Ectopic Pregnancy 221

Pain Associated With Pregnancy 222

Problems With Urination 225

Bloody Urine 225

Frequent Urination 225

Inability to Urinate 226

Testicular Pain 226

Pain and Swelling of Foreskin 227

Kidney Stone 228

Chapter 15 Physical and Environmental Hazards 232

Immediate Changes of Acclimatization 234

Late Changes of Acclimatization 234

Predicting AMS 234

Prevention of AMS 235

High-Altitude Climbing 236

AMS 236

High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema 237

High-Altitude Cerebral Edema 238

Hypothermia 239

Mild Hypothermia 241

Severe Hypothermia 242

Deep Hypothermia 244

Immersion Hypothermia 244

Frostbite 246

Frostnip 249

Immersion (Trench) Foot 249

Chilblains 249

Heat Exhaustion 250

Heatstroke 251

Heat Cramps 254

Other Heat Illnesses 254

Lightning Safety Guidelines 255

Injuries Caused By Lightning 255

Chapter 16 Poisons, Toxins, and Poisonous Plants 261

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning 262

Toxic Plants and Poisons 263

Plant-Induced Dermatitis 264

Chapter 17 Animal Bites, Human Bites, and Snake Bites 268

Wild Animals 269

Domestic Animals 269

Rabies 270

Treating Human Bites 272

Pit Viper Snake Bite 273

Coral Snake Bite 276

Nonpoisonous Snake Bite 278

Chapter 18 Insect and Arthropod Bites and Stings 281

Black Widow Spider 282

Brown Recluse Spider 282

Tarantula 283

Recognizing a Scorpion and Its Sting 284

Assessing and Treating Centipede Bites 285

Assessing and Treating Tick Bites 286

Lyme Disease 286

Assessing and Treating Insect Stings 289

Chapter 19 Water Emergencies 293

Breathing-Gas Problems 296

Decompression Illnesses (Dysbarism) 296

Portuguese Man-of-War, Jellyfish, Sea Anemone 300

Appendix A CPR Basics 305

CPR in the Wilderness 305

When to Start CPR 305

When to Give Prolonged CPR (longer than 30 minutes) 307

When Not to Start CPR 307

When to Stop CPR 307

CPR 307

Airway Obstruction in a Responsive Adult (8 Years and Older) or Child (1 to 8 Years) 309

Responsive Infant With Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (Choking) 310

Appendix B First Aid Equipment and Supplies 311

Appendix C Water Disinfection 319

Field Techniques for Water Treatment 319

The Preferred Technique 325

Camp Hygiene 325

Appendix D Fluid and Electrolyte Replacement 327

Replacement of Intestinal Fluid Losses 327

Appendix E Improving the Odds of Survival 331

Clothing 331

Shelter 332

Water and Food 332

Heat 333

Light 334

Route Finding and Navigation 334

Travel Aids 334

Tools and Repair Kit 335

Communication Equipment 336

Index 337

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