ISBN-10:
0138619980
ISBN-13:
9780138619985
Pub. Date:
03/04/2002
Publisher:
Pearson Education
VLSI for Wireless Communication / Edition 1

VLSI for Wireless Communication / Edition 1

by Bosco H. Leung

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780138619985
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 03/04/2002
Series: Prentice Hall Electronics and VLSI Series
Pages: 400
Product dimensions: 8.16(w) x 10.24(h) x 0.81(d)

Table of Contents

Forewordxiii
Prefacexv
1Communication Concepts: Circuit Designer Perspective1
1.1Introduction1
1.1.1Standards3
1.1.2Communication Systems3
1.2Overview of Modulation Schemes4
1.2.1Binary Frequency Shift Keying4
1.2.2Binary Phase-Shift Keying5
1.2.3Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK)6
1.2.4Offset Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying8
1.2.5Minimum Shift Keying8
1.2.6MSK: Another Viewpoint9
1.3Classical Channel9
1.3.1Additive White Gaussian Noise9
1.3.2Finite Channel Bandwidth12
1.4Wireless Channel Description15
1.4.1Path Environment17
1.4.2Path Loss: A First Glance18
1.4.3MultiPath Fading: A First Glance18
1.5Path Loss: Detailed Discussion19
1.5.1Friis Equation19
1.5.2Amplitude Loss and Minimum Received Signal Strength21
1.5.3Minimum Separation22
1.6Multipath Fading: Channel Model and Envelope Fading22
1.6.1Time-Varying Channel Model22
1.6.2Envelope Fading24
1.7Multipath Fading: Frequency Selective and Fast Fading27
1.7.1Frequency Selective Fading27
1.7.2Fast Fading34
1.7.3Comparisons of Flat/Frequency Selective and Slow/Fast Fading38
1.8Summary of Standard Translation39
References40
Problems40
2Receiver Architectures42
2.1Introduction42
2.2Receiver Front End: General Discussion42
2.2.1Motivations42
2.2.2General Design Philosophy43
2.2.3Heterodyne and Other Architectures45
2.3Filter Design46
2.3.1Band Selection Filter (BPF1)46
2.3.2Image Rejection Filter (BPF2)46
2.3.3Channel Filter (BPF3)50
2.4Rest of Receiver Front End: Nonidealities and Design Parameters51
2.4.1Nonlinearity51
2.4.2Noise58
2.5Derivation of NF, IIP[subscript 3] of Receiver Front End62
2.5.1Required NF[subscript rec_front]62
2.5.2Required IIP[subscript 3, rec_front]63
2.6Partitioning of Required NF[subscript rec_front] and IIP[subscript 3, rec_front] into Individual NF, IIP[subscript 3]69
References71
Problems71
3Low-Noise Amplifier74
3.1Introduction74
3.1.1General Philosophy74
3.1.2Matching Networks76
3.1.3Comparisons of Narrowband and Wideband LNA79
3.2Wideband LNA Design79
3.2.1DC Bias81
3.2.2Gain and Frequency Response81
3.2.3Noise Figure85
3.3Narrowband LNA: Impedance Matching89
3.3.1Matching the Imaginary Part89
3.3.2Matching the Real Part94
3.3.3Interpretation of Power Matching95
3.3.4Similarity between Q (Quality Factor) and n (Turns Ratio)96
3.4Narrowband LNA: Core Amplifier99
3.4.1Noise Figure100
3.4.2Power Dissipation104
3.4.3Trade-off between Noise Figure and Power106
3.4.4Noise Contribution from Other Sources107
3.4.5Gain110
3.4.6Other Real-Life Design Considerations110
References115
Problems115
4Active Mixer118
4.1Introduction118
4.2Balancing120
4.2.1Unbalanced Mixer120
4.2.2Single Balanced Mixer121
4.2.3Double Balanced Mixer: Gilbert Mixer122
4.3Qualitative Description of the Gilbert Mixer122
4.4Conversion Gain124
4.5Distortion, Low-Frequency Case: Analysis of Gilbert Mixer125
4.6Distortion, High-Frequency Case129
4.6.1Volterra Series130
4.6.2Analysis of Gilbert Mixer139
4.7Noise151
4.7.1V[subscript lo] Not Switching Case151
4.7.2V[subscript lo] Switching Case152
4.7.3Analysis of Noise in Unbalanced Mixer (V[subscript lo] Not Switching and Special V[subscript lo] Switching Cases)162
4.8A Complete Active Mixer [8]166
References167
Problems167
5Passive Mixer170
5.1Introduction170
5.2Switching Mixer170
5.2.1Unbalanced Switching Mixer170
5.2.2Single and Double Balanced Switching Mixer172
5.2.3Nonidealities172
5.3Distortion in Unbalanced Switching Mixer174
5.3.1Assumptions on Model174
5.3.2Low-Frequency Case175
5.3.3High-Frequency Case176
5.4Conversion Gain in Unbalanced Switching Mixer179
5.4.1V[subscript lo] Not Switching Case179
5.4.2Special V[subscript lo] Switching Case179
5.4.3General V[subscript lo] Switching Case180
5.5Noise in Unbalanced Switching Mixer181
5.5.1V[subscript lo] Not Switching Case181
5.5.2Special V[subscript lo] Switching Case181
5.5.3General V[subscript lo] Switching Case182
5.6A Practical Unbalanced Switching Mixer183
5.7Sampling Mixer185
5.7.1Qualitative Description185
5.7.2Nonidealities187
5.7.3Bottom-Plate Sampling Mixer188
5.7.4Subsampled Mixer189
5.8Conversion Gain in Single-Ended Sampling Mixer190
5.8.1V[subscript lo] Not Switching Case190
5.8.2Special V[subscript lo] Switching Case191
5.8.3General V[subscript lo] Switching Case191
5.9Distortion in Single-Ended Sampling Mixer192
5.9.1High-Frequency (V[subscript lo] Not Switching) Case192
5.9.2High-Frequency (Special V[subscript lo] Switching) Case; V[subscript lo] Has Finite Rise and Fall Time194
5.9.3High-Frequency Case in Bottom-Plate Single-Ended Sampling Mixer203
5.10Intrinsic Noise in Single-Ended Sampling Mixer205
5.10.1V[subscript lo] Not Switching Case205
5.10.2V[subscript lo] Switching, Both Special and General Cases205
5.11Extrinsic Noise in Single-Ended Sampling Mixer206
5.11.1V[subscript lo] Not Switching Case206
5.11.2V[subscript lo] Switching, Both Special and General Cases207
5.11.3Special V[subscript lo] Switching Case; V[subscript lo] Has Finite Rise and Fall Times207
A5.1Comparisons of Sample and Hold Circuit and Sampling Mixer210
References214
Problems215
6Analog-to-Digital Converters217
6.1Introduction217
6.2Demodulators218
6.2.1FM Discriminator (Incoherent)218
6.2.2IF Detection (Coherent)219
6.2.3Baseband Detection (Coherent)219
6.3A/D Converters Used in a Receiver221
6.3.1Wideband versus Narrowband A/D Converters221
6.3.2Narrowband A/D Converters: General Description223
6.4Low-Pass Sigma-Delta Modulators223
6.4.1First-Order Modulator223
6.4.2High-Order Modulators226
6.5Implementation of Low-Pass Sigma-Delta Modulators229
6.5.1Review of Switch-Capacitor-Based Integrators229
6.5.2Type 1 Switched-Capacitor-Based Integrator230
6.5.3Nonideal Integrator231
6.5.41-Bit ADC233
6.5.51-Bit DAC234
6.5.6Design Procedure234
6.5.7Passive Low-Pass Sigma-Delta Modulator238
6.6Bandpass Sigma-Delta Modulators241
6.6.1Comparisons of Low-Pass and Bandpass Modulators242
6.6.2Low-pass Modulator to Bandpass Modulator Conversion243
6.7Implementation of Bandpass Sigma-Delta Modulators245
6.7.1Review of Switch-Capacitor-Based Resonators245
6.7.2Nonideal Resonator246
6.7.3Design Procedure249
6.7.4Bandpass versus Low-Pass Modulators251
A6.1Low-Voltage Low-Pass Modulator252
References254
Problems255
7Frequency Synthesizer: Phase/Frequency-Processing Components258
7.1Introduction258
7.2PLL-Based Frequency Synthesizer259
7.3Phase Detector/Charge Pump263
7.3.1Phase Frequency Detector263
7.3.2EXOR Phase Detector268
7.3.3Charge Pump270
7.3.4Spurs271
7.3.5K[subscript pd]274
7.4Dividers275
7.4.1Survey of Different Types of Divider275
7.4.2Example of a Complete Divider (DECT Application)280
7.5VCO: Introduction285
7.5.1Categorization285
7.5.2Review of Positive Feedback Theory285
7.6LC Oscillators289
7.6.1Basic LC Oscillators289
7.6.2Alternate LC Oscillator Topologies293
7.6.3Tuning, K[subscript vco]295
7.7Ring Oscillator297
7.7.1Delay Cells298
7.7.2Tuning301
7.8Phase Noise305
7.8.1Definition305
7.8.2Interpretation306
7.8.3Phase Noise of VCO308
References309
Problems310
8Frequency Synthesizer: Loop Filter and System Design316
8.1Introduction316
8.2Loop Filter: General Description316
8.2.1Basic Equations and Definitions316
8.2.2First-Order Filter317
8.2.3Second-Order Filter319
8.2.4High-Order Filters321
8.3Loop Filter: Design Approaches322
8.3.1Phase Noise-Based Approach322
8.3.2Spur-Based Approach331
8.4A Complete Synthesizer Design Example (DECT Application)335
8.4.1Specifications336
8.4.2VCO337
8.4.3Loop Filter: Part 1341
8.4.4Phase Detector: Determine K[subscript pd]344
8.4.5Loop Filter: Part 2346
References347
Problems348
Index351

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