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Upgrading and Repairing PCs / Edition 22

Upgrading and Repairing PCs / Edition 22

by Scott Mueller
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DVD-ROM Includes 3 hours of new how-to video

For more than 25 years, Upgrading and Repairing PCs has been the world’s #1 guide to PC hardware: The single source for reliable information on how PCs work, troubleshooting and fixing problems, adding hardware, optimizing performance, and building new PCs. This 22nd edition offers beefed-up coverage of the newest hardware innovations and maintenance techniques, plus more than two hours of new video.

Scott Mueller delivers practical answers about PC processors, mother-boards, buses, BIOSes, memory, SSD and HDD storage, video, audio, networks, Internet connectivity, power, and much more. You’ll find the industry’s best coverage of diagnostics, testing, and repair—plus cutting-edge discussions of improving PC performance via overclocking and other techniques.

Mueller has taught thousands of professionals in person and millions more through his books and videos—nobody knows more about keeping PCs running perfectly. Whether you’re a professional technician, a small business owner trying to save money, or a home PC enthusiast, this is the only PC hardware book you need!


  • The newest processors, including Intel’s latest Core i Haswell processors and AMD’s Kaveri core processors.
  • Everything you need to know about the latest GPU technology from NVIDIA and AMD, including developments in OpenGL, DirectX, and Mantle.
  • New firmware innovations like the InSyde BIOS, Back to BIOS buttons, and all the updated settings available for the newest processors and chipsets.
  • The latest in updated home networking standards, from blazing fast 802.11ac Wi-Fi to HomeGrid and powerline networking.
  • Ever larger storage, thanks to new technologies like helium-filled hard disks, shingled magnetic recording, and Cfast and XQD for flash memory.
  • Emerging interfaces such as mSATA, USB 3.1, and M.2
  • Updated coverage of building PCs from scratch—from choosing and assembling hardware through BIOS setup and troubleshooting


Get 3 hours of up-to-the minute, studio-quality how-to videos—all playable on your DVD player or computer! In this edition, Scott Mueller delivers a complete seminar on PC troubleshooting, teaching you how to identify and resolve an array of common and not-so-common PC problems.

From detailed explanations on all the tools that should be a basic part of any PC toolkit, to all the critical rules you should follow to safely operate on your PC’s internal components, in these videos Scott Mueller ensures you are equipped with everything you need to know to successfully resolve your PC’s problems.

From there, Scott takes you through a complete disassembly of an All-in-One (AiO) system, showing just what you can do to keep these specialized systems running smoothly. Finally, there is a detailed look at today’s ultra-fast solid state disk drives (SSD) and the benefits they bring to modern systems.

This DVD also contains the complete 19th and 20th editions of this book in printable form, plus extensive technical reference material, a comprehensive glossary, and more!

“…continually revised and updated to reflect the ever-changing PC landscape. A resource from my PC repair days, Scott Mueller’s tome is one of the books that has stayed on my bookshelf
throughout the years.”

—Adam Overa, Managing Editor, Tom’s Hardware

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780789756107
Publisher: Que
Publication date: 07/21/2015
Series: Upgrading and Repairing Series
Pages: 1184
Sales rank: 92,594
Product dimensions: 7.40(w) x 9.30(h) x 2.60(d)

About the Author

Scott Mueller is the president of Mueller Technical Research (MTR), an international research and corporate training firm. Since 1982, MTR has produced the industry’s most in-depth, accurate, and effective seminars, books, articles, videos, and FAQs covering PC hardware and data recovery. MTR maintains a client list that includes Fortune 500 companies, U.S. and foreign governments,

major software and hardware corporations, as well as PC enthusiasts and entrepreneurs. Scott’s seminars have been presented to several thousands of PC support professionals throughout the world.

Scott personally teaches seminars nationwide covering all aspects of PC hardware (including troubleshooting, maintenance, repair, and upgrade), A+ Certification, and data recovery/forensics. He has a knack for making technical topics not only understandable, but entertaining; his classes are never boring! If you have ten or more people to train, Scott can design and present a custom seminar for your organization.

Although he has taught classes virtually nonstop since 1982, Scott is best known as the author of the longest-running, most popular, and most comprehensive PC hardware book in the world, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, which has become the core of an entire series of books, including Upgrading and Repairing PCs, Upgrading and Repairing Laptops, and Upgrading and Repairing Windows.

Scott’s premiere work, Upgrading and Repairing PCs, has sold more than two million copies, making it by far the most popular and longest-running PC hardware book on the market today. Scott has been featured in Forbes magazine and has written several articles for PC World magazine, Maximum PC magazine, the Scott Mueller Forum, various computer and automotive newsletters, and the Upgrading and Repairing PCs website.

Contact MTR directly if you have a unique book, article, or video project in mind or if you want Scott to conduct a custom PC troubleshooting, repair, maintenance, upgrade, or data-recovery seminar tailored for your organization:

Mueller Technical Research:




Scott has a forum exclusively for his readers at Anybody can view the forum, but posting is available only to registered members.

If you have suggestions or comments about the book or new book or article topics you would like to see covered, send them to

Table of Contents

Introduction 1

Chapter 1 Development of the PC 5

Computer History: Before Personal Computers 5

Timeline 5

Electronic Computers 10

Modern Computers 11

From Tubes to Transistors 11

Integrated Circuits 14

History of the PC 15

Birth of the Personal Computer 15

The IBM Personal Computer 16

The PC Industry 34 Years Later 17

Chapter 2 PC Components, Features, and System Design 21

What Is a PC? 21

Who Controls PC Software? 23

Who Controls PC Hardware? 26

White-Box Systems 28

System Types 29

System Components 30

Chapter 3 Processor Types and Specifications 33

Microprocessor History 33

The First Microprocessor 33

PC Processor Evolution 36

16-Bit to 64-Bit Architecture Evolution 39

Processor Specifications 40

Data I/O Bus 48

Address Bus 48

Internal Registers (Internal Data Bus) 49

Processor Modes 49

Processor Benchmarks 54

Comparing Processor Performance 55

Cache Memory 58

Processor Features 65

System Management Mode 65

Superscalar Execution 66

MMX Technology 67

Dynamic Execution 69

Dual Independent Bus Architecture 70

HT Technology (Hyperthreading) 70

Multicore Technology 72

Hardware-Assisted Virtualization Support 73

Processor Manufacturing 74

PGA Chip Packaging 78

Single Edge Contact and Single Edge Processor Packaging 80

Processor Socket and Slot Types 81

Socket LGA775 84

Socket LGA1156 85

Socket LGA1366 86

Socket LGA1155 87

Socket LGA2011 87

Socket LGA1150 89

Socket AM2/AM2+/AM3/AM3+ 89

Socket F (1207FX) 91

Socket FM1 92

Socket FM2 92

Socket FM2+ 92

Socket AM1 (Socket FS1B) 92

CPU Operating Voltages 93

Math Coprocessors (Floating-Point Units) 94

Processor Bugs and Steppings 94

Processor Code Names 95

P1 (086) Processors 95

P2 (286) Processors 97

P3 (386) Processors 98

P4 (486) Processors 99

P5 (586) Processors 100

AMD-K5 102

Intel P6 (686) Processors 103

Pentium Pro Processors 103

Pentium II Processors 104

Pentium III 106

Celeron 107

Intel Pentium 4 and Extreme Edition Processors 108

Intel Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition 110

Intel Core Processors 112

Intel Core 2 Family 112

Intel (Nehalem) Core i Processors 116

AMD K6 Processors 121

AMD K7 Processors 122

AMD Athlon 122

AMD Duron 123

AMD Athlon XP 124

Athlon MP 124

AMD K8 Processors 124

AMD Athlon 64 and 64 FX 124

AMD Sempron 128

AMD Athlon X2, 64 X2, and 64 FX 128

AMD K10 Processors (Phenom, Phenom II, Athlon II, Athlon X2, Sempron) 130

AMD Bulldozer, Piledriver, Steamroller, and Excavator FX Processors 134

AMD Fusion/HSA APUs 137

Processor Upgrades  139

Overclocking 142

Quartz Crystals 142

Modern PC Clocks 145

Overclocking Tips 147

Unlocking Cores 148

Bus Speeds and Multipliers 149

Processor Cooling 152

Heatsinks 152

Liquid Cooling 158

Thermally Advantaged Chassis 159

Processor Troubleshooting Techniques 161

Chapter 4 Motherboards and Buses 165

Motherboard Form Factors 165

Obsolete Form Factors 166

ATX and Other Modern Form Factors 177

Processor Sockets/Slots 189

Chipsets 192

Chipset Evolution 193

Intel Chipsets 195

Intel Chipset Model Numbers 195

Intel Integrated Graphics Architecture 197

AMD Integrated Graphics Architecture 197

Traditional North/southbridge Architecture 197

Hub Architecture 199

HyperTransport and Other Processor/Chipset Interconnects 201

Intel’s Early 386/486 Chipsets 201

Fifth-Generation (P5 Pentium Class) Chipsets 202

Sixth-Generation (P6 Pentium Pro/II/III Class) Chipsets 203

Seventh/Eighth-Generation (Pentium 4/D, Core2, and Core i) Chipsets 207

Intel 915 Family 215

Intel 925X Family 215

Intel 945 Express Family 216

Intel 955X and 975X Family 217

Intel 96x Series 217

Intel 3x and 4x Series Chipsets 218

Intel 5x Series Chipsets 220

Intel 6x Series Chipsets 224

Intel 7x Series Chipsets 225

Intel 8x Series Chipsets 227

Intel 9x Series Chipsets 229

Third-Party Chipsets for Intel Processors 231

SiS Chipsets 231

ULi Electronics Chipsets 231

ATI Chipsets 231

VIA Chipsets 232

NVIDIA Chipsets for Intel Processors 232

Chipsets for AMD Processors 232

AMD Athlon Chipsets 233

AMD Athlon 64 Chipsets 234

AMD 8000 (8151) Chipset 234

AMD (Formerly ATI) Chipsets for Athlon 64, Sempron, Phenom 235

Third-Party Chipsets for AMD Processors 242

VIA Chipsets 242

SiS Chipsets 242

NVIDIA Chipsets 243

Super I/O Chips 244

Motherboard Connectors 244

System Bus Types, Functions, and Features 255

The Processor Bus (FSB) 261

Types of I/O Buses 262

The ISA Bus 262

The Micro Channel Bus 262

The EISA Bus 263

Local Buses (VESA, PCI, PCI Express, AGP) 263

System Resources 270

Interrupts 271

DMA Channels 276

I/O Port Addresses 276

Motherboard Selection Criteria (Knowing What to Look For) 278

Chipset Documentation 279

Chapter 5 BIOS 281

BIOS Basics 281

Motherboard ROM BIOS 285

ROM Hardware 285

ROM Shadowing 287

ROM Chip Types 287

ROM BIOS Manufacturers 291

BIOS Hardware/Software 292

Upgrading the BIOS 292

Where to Get Your BIOS Update 293

Determining Your BIOS Version 293

Backing Up Your BIOS 293

Backing Up Your BIOS Setup (CMOS RAM) Settings 294

Upgrading a Flash BIOS 295

Motherboard CMOS RAM Addresses 303

Preboot Environment 305

Unified Extensible Firmware Interface 307

UEFI and BIOS Limitations 307

UEFI Support 309

BIOS Setup 309

Running or Accessing the BIOS Setup Program 310

BIOS Setup Menus 310

Maintenance Menu 311

Main Menu 313

Exit Menu 345

AMD-Specific BIOS Settings 346

PnP BIOS 347

PnP Device IDs 347

ACPI 347

BIOS/MBR Error Messages 348

BIOS Boot Error Messages 349

MBR Boot Error Messages 352

Chapter 6 Memory 355

Memory Basics 355

ROM 357

DRAM 357

Cache Memory: SRAM 359

Memory Standards 361

Speed and Performance 362

Fast Page Mode DRAM 365

Extended Data Out RAM 366







Memory Modules 375

Registered Modules 382

SDR DIMM Details 383

DDR DIMM Details 384

DDR2 DIMM Details 384

DDR3 DIMM Details 384

DDR4 DIMM Details 384

Determining a Memory Module’s Size and Features 385

Memory Banks 387

Memory Module Speed 388

Parity and ECC 388

Parity Checking 390

How Parity Checking Works 391

ECC 391

RAM Upgrades 392

Upgrade Options and Strategies 393

Purchasing Memory 395

Replacing Modules with Higher-Capacity Versions 397

Installing Memory Modules 397

Troubleshooting Memory 399

Memory Defect Isolation Procedures 403

The System Logical Memory Layout 405

Chapter 7 The ATA/IDE Interface 409

An Overview of the IDE Interface 409

Precursors to IDE 409

IDE Origins 410

Origins of ATA 411

ATA Standards 412

ATA-1 (ATA Interface for Disk Drives) 414

ATA-2 (ATA Interface with Extensions-2) 415

ATA-3 (ATA Interface-3) 415

ATA/ATAPI-4 (ATA with Packet Interface Extension-4) 416

ATA/ATAPI-5 (ATA with Packet Interface-5) 417

ATA/ATAPI-6 (ATA with Packet Interface-6) 417

ATA/ATAPI-7 (ATA with Packet Interface-7) 418


PATA 419

PATA I/O Connector 419

PATA I/O Cable 423

Longer or Rounded Cables 425

PATA Signals 425

PATA Dual-Drive Configurations 426

PATA PIO Transfer Modes 429

PATA DMA Transfer Modes 429

SATA 431

SATA Standards and Performance 431

SATA Express 432

SATA Cables and Connectors 434

eSATA 439

SATA Configuration 443

Advanced Host Controller Interface 444

Non-Volatile Memory Express 445

SATA Transfer Modes 445

ATA Features 446

ATA Commands 446

ATA Security Mode 447

Host Protected Area 448


ATA Drive Capacity Limitations 450

Prefixes for Decimal and Binary Multiples 451

BIOS Limitations 451

CHS Versus LBA 452

CHS/LBA and LBA/CHS Conversions 453

BIOS Commands Versus ATA Commands 454

CHS Limitations (the 528MB Barrier) 455

CHS Translation (Breaking the 528MB Barrier) 457

The 2.1GB and 4.2GB Barriers 459

LBA-Assist Translation 462

The 8.4GB Barrier 465

The 137GB Barrier and Beyond 466

Operating System and Other Software Limitations 468

GPT and the 2.2TB Barrier 470


Software RAID 474

Chapter 8 Magnetic Storage 475

Magnetic Storage 475

History of Magnetic Storage 475

How Magnetic Fields Are Used to Store Data 476

Read/Write Head Designs 479

Ferrite 480

Metal-In-Gap 480

Thin-Film 480

Magneto-Resistive Heads 481

Giant Magneto-Resistive Heads 482

Head Sliders 483

Data-Encoding Schemes 486

Frequency Modulation Encoding 487

Modified FM Encoding 487

Run Length Limited Encoding 488

Encoding Scheme Comparisons 489

Partial-Response, Maximum-Likelihood Decoders 490

Capacity Measurements 491

Areal Density 492

Perpendicular Magnetic Recording 495

Helium-Filled Drives 497

Shingled Magnetic Recording 497

Definition of a Hard Disk 498

Hard Drive Advancements 499

Form Factors 500

5 1/4-Inch Drive 502

3 1/2-Inch Drive 502

2 1/2-Inch Drive 502

1.8-Inch Drive 503

1-Inch Drives 503

HDD Operation 503

Data Recovery Options 505

The Ultimate HDD Analogy 506

Tracks and Sectors 507

ECC 510

Disk Formatting 515

Basic HDD Components 521

Hard Disk Platters (Disks) 522

Recording Media 522

Read/Write Heads 524

Head Actuator Mechanisms 526

Air Filters 532

Hard Disk Temperature Acclimation 534

Spindle Motors 534

Logic Boards 535

Cables and Connectors 536

Configuration Items 536

Hard Disk Features 536

Capacity 537

Performance 538

Reliability 543

Chapter 9 Flash and Removable Storage 547

Alternative Storage Devices 547

Flash Memory Devices 547

CompactFlash, XQD, and CFast 549

SmartMedia 551

MultiMediaCard 551

SecureDigital 552

Sony Memory Stick 552

ATA Flash PC Card 553

Card-Picture Card 553

Solid-State Drives 553

Virtual SSD (RAMdisk) 554

Flash-Based SSDs 554

USB Flash Drives 558

Comparing Flash Memory Devices 559

SD Cards Speed Class and UHS Speed Class Markings 561

File Systems Used by Flash Memory 563

Flash Card Readers 563

Card Readers 563

ReadyBoost Support 564

Cloud-Based Storage 565

Floppy Disk Drives 566

Tape Drives 567

Chapter 10 Optical Storage 569

Optical Technology 569

CD-Based Optical Technology 570

CDs: A Brief History 570

CD Construction and Technology 571

Mass-Producing CDs 571

Writable CDs 583

MultiRead Specifications 590

MultiPlay and MultiAudio 592

DVD 592

DVD History 593

DVD Construction and Technology 593

DVD Tracks and Sectors 595

Handling DVD Errors 599

DVD Capacity (Sides and Layers) 601

Data Encoding on the DVD Disc 604

Recordable DVD Standards 604

Multiformat Rewritable DVD Drives 612

BD 613

HD-DVD 616

Optical Disc Formats 616

CD Formats 616

DVD Formats and Standards 625

Optical Disc File Systems 628

Ripping/Copying Discs 634

”For Music Use Only” CD-R/RW Discs 635

CD Copy Protection 635

CD Digital Rights Management 636

DVD and Blu-ray Copy Protection 636

Optical Drive Performance Specifications 640

CD Data Transfer Rate 640

CD Drive Speed 640

DVD Drive Speed 641

BD Drive Speed 644

Access Time 645

Buffer/Cache 646

Direct Memory Access and Ultra-DMA 646

Interface 646

Loading Mechanism 647

Other Drive Features 648

How to Reliably Record Optical Discs 648

Bootable Optical Discs—El Torito 649

LightScribe and LabelFlash 649

Troubleshooting Optical Drives 649

Caring for Optical Media 653

Updating the Firmware in an Optical Drive 654

Chapter 11 Video Hardware 657

Display Adapters and Monitors 657

Video Display Adapters 658

Video Adapter Types 658

Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets 659

CPUs with Integrated Video 663

Intel Processors with Integrated Graphics 664

AMD Desktop APUs 667

Video Adapter Components 671

Identifying the Video and System Chipsets 673

Video RAM 674

The DAC 678

Video Display Interfaces 678

The System Interface 678

The Display Interface 679

TV Display Interfaces 695

3D Graphics Accelerators 696

How 3D Accelerators Work 697

APIs 700

Dual-GPU Scene Rendering 704

Monitors 707

Display Specifications 707

LCD and LED Technology 716

Touchscreens 719

Plasma Display Technology 720

LCD and DLP Projectors 721

Using Multiple Monitors 722

Dualview 722

Homogeneous Adapters 723

Heterogeneous Adapters 723

Choosing the Best Display Hardware for a Particular Task 723

Video Troubleshooting and Maintenance 724

Troubleshooting Video Cards and Drivers 725

Video Drivers 727

Maintaining Monitors 728

Testing Monitors 728

Adjusting Monitors 729

Bad Pixels 730

Troubleshooting Monitors 730

Repairing Monitors 731

Chapter 12 Audio Hardware 733

Audio Hardware Concepts and Terms 734

The Nature of Sound 734

Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Hardware 734

Sampling 735

Early PC Sound Cards 736

Limitations of Sound Blaster Pro Compatibility 736

Microsoft Windows and Audio Support 736

DirectX and Audio Support Hardware 737

Core Audio APIs for Windows 737

3D Gaming Audio Standards 738

Legacy Audio Support Through Virtualization 740

Audio Hardware Features 740

Basic Connectors 740

Audio Signal Processing Methods 743

Advanced Audio Features 743

Volume Control 745

MIDI Support Features 745

Data Compression 746

Sound Drivers 747

Sound Cards for Sound Producers 748

Motherboard Chipsets with Integrated Audio 748

Intel “Azalia” HD Audio 749

Troubleshooting PC Audio Problems 749

Sound Card and Onboard Audio Problems 749

Speakers 753

Speaker Selection Criteria 753

Theater and Surround Sound Considerations 754

Microphones 755

Chapter 13 External I/O Interfaces 757

Introduction to Input/Output Ports 757

Serial Versus Parallel 757

Universal Serial Bus 758

IEEE 1394 (FireWire or i.LINK) 775

Hot-Plugging (and Unplugging) 779

Thunderbolt Technology 782

Low-Speed External Connections 784

Serial Ports 784

Parallel Ports 789

Chapter 14 Input Devices 795

Keyboards 795

Enhanced 101-Key Keyboard 795

103/104-Key Windows Keyboard 796

Keyboard Technology 798

Keyswitch Design 798

The Keyboard Interface 804

Typematic Functions 805

Keyboard Scan Codes 806

International Keyboard Layouts 807

Keyboard/Mouse Interface Connectors 808

USB Keyboards 810

Keyboards with Special Features 811

Keyboard Troubleshooting and Repair 811

Cleaning a Keyboard 812

Keyboard Recommendations 813

Pointing Devices 814

Mouse Sensitivity 815

Ball-Type Mice 815

Optical Mice 815

Pointing Device Interface Types 817

Scroll Wheels 819

Mouse Troubleshooting 821

Cleaning Your Mouse 821

Alternative Pointing Devices 821

Touchscreen Technology 826

Wireless Input Devices 827

Power Management Features of Wireless Input Devices 828

Supporting Multiple Devices with a Single Transceiver 829

Troubleshooting Wireless Input Devices 829

Chapter 15 Internet Connectivity 831

Internet Connectivity Trends 831

Broadband Internet Access Types 832

Cable Internet 832

Digital Subscriber Line 836

Wireless Broadband 840

Cellular Broadband 3G and 4G Services 840

Satellite Broadband 841

ISDN 844

Leased Lines 845

Comparing High-Speed Internet Access 846

Dial-Up Modems 847

Internet Connection Security 848

Having a Backup Plan in Case of Service Interruptions 849

Sharing Your Internet Connection 850

Routers for Internet Sharing 850

Modem/Router Status LEDs 851

Chapter 16 Local Area Networking 853

Defining a Network 853

Types of Networks 854

Requirements for a Network 855

Client/Server Versus Peer Networks 855

Client/Server Networks 856

Peer-to-Peer Networks 857

Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks 857

Network Architecture Overview 858

Wired Ethernet 860

Wireless Ethernet 862

Bluetooth 868

Hardware Elements of Your Network 869

NICs for Wired Ethernet Networks 869

Network Cables for Wired Ethernet 871

Wired Network Topologies 880

Switches for Ethernet Networks 883

Wireless Ethernet Hardware 887

Network Protocols 892

IP and TCP/IP 892

IPX and NetBEUI 893

Other Home Networking Solutions 894

HomePNA 894

HomeGrid Forum and Networking 895

Power Line Networking 895

Putting Your Network Together 897

Network Adapters 898

Cables and Connections Between Computers 899

Switch/Access Point 899

Chapter 17 Power Supplies 903

The Power Supply 903

Primary Function and Operation 903

Voltage Rails 904

The Power Good Signal 906

Power Supply Form Factors 907

Modern Form Factors 910

Power Switches 925

ATX and Newer 925

PC/XT/AT and LPX Power Switches 927

Motherboard Power Connectors 928

AT/LPX Power Supply Connectors 929

ATX and ATX12V Motherboard Power Connectors 931

Backward and Forward Compatibility 944

Dell Proprietary (Nonstandard) ATX Design 946

Additional Power Connectors 946

Peripheral Power Connectors 946

Floppy (Berg) Power Connectors 947

Serial ATA Power Connectors 948

PCI Express Auxiliary Graphics Power Connectors 949

Power Supply Specifications 953

Power Supply Loading 953

Power Supply Ratings 955

Other Power Supply Specifications 956

Power Factor Correction 958

SLI-Ready and CrossFire/CrossFireX Certifications 960

Safety Certifications 960

Power-Use Calculations 961

Power Savings 963

80 Plus 963


Advanced Configuration and Power Interface 966

Power Cycling 968

Power Supply Troubleshooting 972

Overloaded Power Supplies 973

Inadequate Cooling 973

Using Digital Multimeters 974

Specialized Test Equipment 977

Power Supply Recommendations 980

Modular Cables 981

Sources for Replacement Power Supplies 982

Power-Protection Systems 982

Surge Suppressors (Protectors) 984

Network and Phone Line Surge Protectors 984

Line Conditioners 985

Backup Power 985

Real-Time Clock/Nonvolatile RAM (CMOS RAM) Batteries 988

Modern CMOS Batteries 989

Obsolete or Unique CMOS Batteries 990

CMOS Battery Troubleshooting 991

Chapter 18 Building or Upgrading Systems 993

System Components 993

Before You Start: How to Decide What to Build 995

Case and Power Supply 997

Processor 998

Motherboard 999

Memory 1001

I/O Ports 1001

Hard Disk/Solid-State Drives 1003

Removable Storage 1003

Input Devices 1004

Video Card and Display 1004

Audio Hardware 1005

Accessories 1005

Hardware and Software Resources 1006

System Assembly and Disassembly 1007

Assembly Preparation 1007

Installing the CPU and Heatsink 1011

Installing Memory Modules 1017

Mounting the New Motherboard in the Case 1018

Preparing a Modular Power Supply 1023

Connecting the Power Supply 1023

Connecting I/O and Other Cables to the Motherboard 1026

Installing the Drives 1027

Installing a Video Card 1031

Installing Additional Expansion Cards 1033

Replacing the Cover and Connecting External Cables 1033

System Startup 1033

Installing the OS 1035

Troubleshooting New Installations 1037

Chapter 19 PC Diagnostics, Testing, and Maintenance 1039

PC Diagnostics 1039

Diagnostics Software 1039

The POST 1040

Insyde BIOS Diagnostic and Beep Codes 1053

Peripheral Diagnostics 1053

Operating System Diagnostics 1053

Commercial Diagnostics Software 1054

Free/User-Supported Diagnostics 1055

The Boot Process 1055

The Hardware Boot Process: Operating System Independent 1056

The DOS Boot Process 1061

The Windows 9x/Me Boot Process 1061

Windows 2000/XP Startup 1061

Windows Vista/7 Startup 1062

Windows 8.1/10 Startup 1063

PC Maintenance Tools 1063

Hand Tools 1064

Safety 1068

Test Equipment 1069

Special Tools for the Enthusiast 1074

Preventive Maintenance 1075

Active Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1076

Passive Preventive Maintenance Procedures 1081

Troubleshooting Tips and Techniques 1085

Repair or Replace? 1086

Basic Troubleshooting Steps 1086

Troubleshooting by Replacing Parts 1087

Troubleshooting by the Bootstrap Approach 1087

Problems During the POST 1089

Problems Running Software 1089

Problems with Adapter Cards 1089

Top Troubleshooting Problems 1090

9780789756107, TOC, 6/8/2015

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