Aleksandr Nikitenko, descended from once-free Cossacks, was born into serfdom in provincial Russia in 1804. One of 300,000 serfs owned by Count Sheremetev, Nikitenko as a teenager became fiercely determined to gain his freedom. In this memorable and moving book, here translated into English for the first time, Nikitenko recollects the details of his childhood and youth in servitude as well as the six-year struggle that at last delivered him into freedom in 1824. Among the very few autobiographies ever written by an ex-serf, Up from Serfdom provides a unique portrait of serfdom in nineteenth-century Russia and a profoundly clear sense of what such bondage meant to the people, the culture, and the nation.
Rising to eminence as a professor at St. Petersburg University, former serf Nikitenko set about writing his autobiography in 1851, relying on his own diaries (begun at the age of fourteen and maintained throughout his life), his father’s correspondence and documents, and the stories that his parents and grandparents told as he was growing up. He recalls his town, his schooling, his masters and mistresses, and the utter capriciousness of a serf’s existence, illustrated most vividly by his father’s lurching path from comfort to destitution to prison to rehabilitation. Nikitenko’s description of the tragedy, despair, unpredictability, and astounding luck of his youth is a compelling human story that brings to life as never before the experiences of the serf in Russia in the early 1800s.
|Publisher:||Yale University Press|
|Sold by:||Barnes & Noble|
|File size:||4 MB|
About the Author
Helen Saltz Jacobson is a freelance writer and translator known for her translation of Nikitenko’s 1826-1874 diaries. She has also translated five volumes of Russian science fiction into English.
Read an Excerpt
It was the arbitrary nature of the serfholder's power that weighed on serfs like Nikitenko, for as they discovered, even the most benevolent patron could turn overnight into an overbearing tyrant. In that respect, serfdom and slavery were the same.
Peter Kolchin, from the foreword
Table of Contents
|Chapter 1.||My Roots||1|
|Chapter 2.||My Parents||6|
|Chapter 3.||Father's First Attempt to Introduce Truth Where It Wasn't Wanted||18|
|Chapter 4.||My Early Childhood||24|
|Chapter 6.||Home from Exile||39|
|Chapter 7.||Father Returns from St. Petersburg||46|
|Chapter 8.||1811: New Place, New Faces||54|
|Chapter 9.||Our Life in Pisaryevka, 1812-1815||66|
|Chapter 11.||Fate Strikes Again||94|
|Chapter 12.||Waiting in Voronezh||104|
|Chapter 13.||Ostrogozhsk: I Go Out into the World||107|
|Chapter 14.||My Friends and Activities in Ostrogozhsk||119|
|Chapter 15.||My Friends in the Military; General Yuzefovich; The Death of My Father||133|
|Chapter 16.||Farewell, Ostrogozhsk||149|
|Chapter 17.||Home Again in Ostrogozhsk||165|
|Chapter 18.||The Dawn of a New Day||177|
|Chapter 19.||St. Petersburg: My Struggle for Freedom||187|
What People are Saying About This
A rare and powerful document. Nikitenko's memoir should take its place next to the very best ex-slave narratives and those of untouchables in India.
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
I thought this was an alright book, but nothing outstanding. I have to agree with john257hopper's review in that while the concept of a book written by a Russian serf is intersting, Nikitenko was *not* the norm, so reading this can actually present a skewed view of how serfdom worked if one isn't on their toes. While his constant striving for education helped him eventually achieve freedom, his constant encounter with good luck also played a major role. Various people throughout his early years - his school teachers, Prince Golitsyn, and others - played integral roles in him finally being freed, and had he met less sympathetic people on the way, he might have just as easily ended up in prison, or worse, killed. If you're looking for a balanced view of how serfdom worked for most serfs, you should probably look elsewhere.
A riveting book that gives an idea of what being a serf was like (you'll never think fondly of the Sheremetev family again); based on his memoirs, first published in 1888.