ISBN-10:
0139440003
ISBN-13:
9780139440007
Pub. Date:
07/28/1990
Publisher:
Longman Publishing Group
Understanding and Using English Grammar ESL / Edition 2

Understanding and Using English Grammar ESL / Edition 2

by Betty Schrampfer Azar

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780139440007
Publisher: Longman Publishing Group
Publication date: 07/28/1990
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 364
Product dimensions: 0.39(w) x 11.02(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Preface xvii
Acknowledgments xix
Verb Tenses
Selfstudy: Verb tenses
1(1)
Self: Names of verb tenses
2(2)
Self: Verb tenses
4(2)
Self: Spelling of -ing and -ed forms
6(1)
Self: The simple present and the present progressive
7(1)
Self: Nonprogressive and progressive verbs
8(1)
Guided Study: The simple present and the present progressive
8(2)
Guided: Irregular verbs
10(3)
Self: Simple past of irregular verbs
13(1)
Self: Simple past of irregular verbs
13(1)
Self: Simple past of irregular verbs
14(1)
Self: Simple past of irregular verbs
15(1)
Guided: Simple past of irregular verbs
15(1)
Self: Troublesome verbs, rise/raise, sit/set, lie/lay
16(1)
Self: The simple past and the past progressive
16(1)
Guided: The simple past and the past progressive
17(1)
Guided: The simple past and the past progressive
18(1)
Self: The present perfect
18(1)
Self: Using since and for
19(1)
Self: The simple past and the present perfect
20(1)
Guided: The present perfect
21(1)
Self: The present perfect and the present perfect progressive
21(1)
Guided: The present perfect and the present perfect progressive
22(1)
Guided: Writing
23(1)
Self: The simple past and the past perfect
24(1)
Self: The simple past and the past perfect
24(2)
Guided: The past perfect
26(1)
Self: The present perfect progressive and the past perfect progressive
26(1)
Guided: Writing
27(1)
Self: Will vs. be going to
27(1)
Guided: Will vs. be going to
28(1)
Self: Expressing the future in time clauses
29(1)
Self: Expressing the future in time clauses
29(1)
Guided: Expressing the future in time clauses
30(1)
Self: Using the present progressive to express the future
30(1)
Guided: Using the present progressive to express future time
31(1)
Self: The future progressive
32(1)
Self: The future perfect and the future perfect progressive
33(1)
Guided: Past and future
33(1)
Self: Review of tenses
34(1)
Self: Review of tenses
34(1)
Guided: Review of tenses
35(2)
Guided: Review of tenses
37(1)
Self: Error analysis
38(1)
Practice Test A---Self: Verb tenses
39(2)
Practice Test B---Guided: Verb tenses
41(2)
Modal Auxiliaries and Similar Expression
Selfstudy: Verb forms with modal auxiliaries
43(1)
Self: Making polite requests
44(1)
Self: Using would you mind
44(1)
Guided Study: Imperatives
45(1)
Guided: Making polite requests
45(1)
Guided: Making polite requests
46(1)
Self: Must (not) and (do not) have to
47(1)
Self: Have to, verb form review
48(1)
Guided: Should, ought to, had better
49(1)
Guided: Should, ought to, had better
49(1)
Guided: The past form of should
50(1)
Guided: Be to
51(1)
Guided: Necessity, advisability, and expectations
52(1)
Guided: Let's, why don't, shall/we
52(2)
Guided: Using could and should to make suggestions
54(1)
Self: Degrees of certainty: must and may/might/could
54(1)
Guided: Degrees of certainty: must and may/might/could
55(1)
Guided: Making conclusions: must and must not
56(1)
Guided: Degrees of certainty: must
57(1)
Self: Degrees of certainty
57(2)
Self: Forms of modals
59(1)
Guided: Forms of modals
60(1)
Guided: Degrees of certainty
61(1)
Self: Used to and be used to
62(1)
Guided: Used to and be used to
62(1)
Self: Repeated action: would
63(1)
Guided: Would rather
64(1)
Self: Past ability: could
64(1)
Guided: Modals: dialogues
65(2)
Guided: Modals: dialogues
67(1)
Guided: Discussion using modals
68(1)
Guided: General review of verb forms
68(1)
Guided: Review of modals
69(1)
Practice Test A---Self: Modals and similar expressions
70(1)
Practice Test B---Guided: Modals and similar expressions
71(3)
The Passive
Selfstudy: Forming the passive
74(1)
Guided Study: Forming the passive
75(1)
Self: Forming the passive
75(2)
Self: Using the passive: transitive vs. intransitive verbs
77(1)
Self: Forming the passive
77(1)
Self: Active vs. passive
78(1)
Self: Using the "by phrase"
79(1)
Guided: Using the "by phrase"
80(1)
Self: Indirect objects as passive subjects
81(1)
Self: Active and passive
81(1)
Guided: Active and passive
82(2)
Self: Present participle vs. past participle
84(1)
Guided: Present participle vs. past participle
85(1)
Self: Passive modals
85(1)
Self: Passive modals
86(1)
Guided: Passive modals
87(2)
Self: Stative passive
89(1)
Guided: Stative passive
90(1)
Self: Stative passive + prepositions
91(1)
Self: Stative passive + prepositions
91(1)
Guided: Present vs. past participles
92(1)
Self: The passive with get
93(1)
Guided: The passive with get
94(1)
Self: Participial adjectives
95(1)
Self: Participial adjectives
96(1)
Guided: Participial adjectives
97(1)
Guided: Verb form review, active and passive
98(2)
Self: Error analysis
100(1)
Guided: Writing
101(1)
Practice Test A---Self: The passive
101(2)
Practice Test B---Guided: The passive
103(2)
Gerunds as infinitives
Selfstudy: Gerunds as objects of prepositions
105(1)
Guided Study: Gerunds as objects of prepositions
106(1)
Guided: Verbs followed by gerunds
106(1)
Self: Gerund vs. infinitive
106(1)
Self: Verbs followed by infinitives
107(2)
Guided: Verbs followed by infinitives
109(1)
Self: Gerund vs. infinitive
109(1)
Guided: Gerund vs. infinitive
110(1)
Self: Gerund vs. infinitive
111(1)
Self: Gerund vs. infinitive
111(2)
Self: Gerund vs. infinitive
113(1)
Self: Gerund vs. infinitive
114(1)
Guided: Gerund vs. infinitive
115(1)
Guided: Using gerunds as subjects
115(1)
Guided: Using it + infinitive
116(1)
Self: (In order) to
116(1)
Guided: Adjectives followed by infinitives
117(1)
Self: Too vs. very
117(1)
Self: Passive infinitives
118(1)
Self: Passive gerunds
119(1)
Self: Passive infinitives and gerunds
119(1)
Self: Past and past-passive infinitives and gerunds
120(1)
Self: Using a possessive to modify a gerund
121(1)
Self: Gerunds and infinitives
121(2)
Guided: Gerunds and infinitives
123(1)
Self: Using verbs of perception
123(1)
Guided: Using verbs of perception
124(1)
Self: Let, help, and causative verbs
124(1)
Guided: Let, help, and causative verbs
125(1)
Guided: Special expressions followed by the -ing form of a verb
125(1)
Self: Verb form review
125(2)
Self: Verb from review
127(2)
Guided: Verb form review
129(3)
Self: Error analysis
132(1)
Guided: Verb forms
133(1)
Practice Test A---Self: Gerunds and infinitives
134(1)
Practice Test B---Guided: Gerunds and infinitives
135(2)
Singular and Plural
Selfstudy: Final -s/-es
137(1)
Self: Plural nouns
138(1)
Self: Irregular foreign plurals
139(1)
Self: Possessive nouns
139(1)
Self: Using apostrophes
140(1)
Guided Study: Using apostrophes
141(1)
Self: Using nouns as modifiers
141(1)
Self: Using nouns as modifiers
142(1)
Self: Using nouns as modifiers
142(1)
Self: Count and noncount nouns
143(1)
Self: Count and noncount nouns
144(1)
Guided: Count and noncount nouns
144(1)
Self: Count and noncount nouns
145(1)
Guided: Count and noncount nouns
146(1)
Self: Much vs. many
146(1)
Self: Expressions of quantity
147(1)
Self: Using a few/few; a little/little
148(1)
Self: Using of in expressions of quantity
149(1)
Guided: Using of in expressions of quantity
150(1)
Guided: Writing
151(1)
Self: Using one, each, every
151(1)
Guided: Expressions of quantity
152(1)
Self: Subject-verb agreement
152(2)
Guided: Subject-verb agreement
154(1)
Self: Agreement of pronouns
155(1)
Self: Reflexive pronouns
155(2)
Self: Impersonal pronouns
157(1)
Guided: Singular-plural
157(1)
Self: Forms of other
158(1)
Guided: Forms of other
159(1)
Guided: Forms of other
160(1)
Self: Error analysis
160(1)
Guided: Error analysis
161(1)
Guided: Writing
161(1)
Practice Test A---Self: Singular and plural
161(2)
Practice Test B---Guided: Singular and plural
163(2)
Adjective Clauses
Selfstudy: Basic patterns of adjective clauses
165(1)
Self: Basic patterns of adjective clauses
166(1)
Self: Basic patterns of adjective clauses
167(1)
Self: Adjective clause patterns
168(1)
Self: Adjective clauses: using whose
169(1)
Self: Adjective clauses
169(1)
Self: Adjective clauses: subject-verb agreement
170(1)
Self: Error analysis
170(1)
Self: Adjective clauses: using where and when
171(1)
Guided Study: Writing adjective clauses
172(1)
Guided: Writing
172(1)
Self: Punctuation of adjective clauses
172(1)
Self: Punctuation of adjective clauses
173(1)
Self: Punctuation of adjective clauses
174(1)
Self: Punctuation of adjective clauses
175(1)
Self: Expressions of quantity in adjective clauses
175(1)
Self: Using which to modify a sentence
175(1)
Guided: Special adjective clauses
176(1)
Guided: Writing adjective clauses
176(1)
Self: Adjective phrases
177(1)
Self: Punctuation of adjective phrases
178(1)
Self: Adjective phrases
178(1)
Guided: Adjective phrases
179(1)
Guided: Speaking and writing
180(1)
Guided: Adjective clauses and phrases
180(1)
Self: Error analysis
181(1)
Guided: Error analysis
181(1)
Guided: Writing game
182(1)
Guided: Writing
182(1)
Practice Test A---Self: Adjective clauses
182(2)
Practice Test B---Guided: Adjective clauses
184(2)
Noun Clauses
Selfstudy: Questions and noun clauses that begin with a question word
186(1)
Self: Questions and noun clauses that begin with a question word
186(1)
Self: Forms of information questions and noun clauses
187(1)
Self: Questions and noun clauses that begin with a question word
188(2)
Guided Study: Information questions and noun clauses
190(1)
Self: Changing yes/no and information questions to noun clauses
190(2)
Self: Error analysis
192(1)
Self: Question words and whether followed by infinitives
192(1)
Guided: "That clauses"
193(1)
Self: Using the fact that
194(1)
Self: Quoted speech
194(2)
Self: Reported speech
196(1)
Self: Reported speech
196(1)
Self: Reported speech
197(2)
Guided: Reported speech
199(1)
Guided: Reported speech
200(1)
Guided: Reported speech
200(1)
Self: Error analysis
201(1)
Guided: Error analysis
201(1)
Self: Using the subjunctive
201(1)
Self: Using -ever words
202(1)
Practice Test A---Self: Noun clauses
203(1)
Practice Test B---Guided: Noun clauses
204(2)
Showing Relationships between Ideas---Part I
Selfstudy: Parallel structure
206(1)
Self: Parallel structure
206(1)
Self: Paired conjunctions, subject-verb agreement
207(1)
Self: Paired conjunctions
207(1)
Guided Study: Parallel structure
208(1)
Guided: Parallel structure
209(1)
Self: Combining independent clauses: periods and commas
210(1)
Guided: Using parallel structure
210(1)
Self: Adverb clauses
211(1)
Self: Periods and commas
211(1)
Guided: Periods and commas
211(1)
Self: Verb tenses in adverb clauses of time
212(1)
Guided: Verb tenses in adverb clauses of time
213(1)
Self: Using adverb clauses to show time relationships
214(1)
Guided: Using adverb clauses to show time relationships
215(1)
Self: Cause and effect
215(1)
Self: Using adverb clauses to show cause and effect relationships
216(1)
Self: Using because and because of
217(1)
Guided: Using because and therefore
217(1)
Self: Using because and therefore
218(1)
Self: Showing cause and effect
218(1)
Self: Using such...that and so...that
219(1)
Guided: Using such...that and so...that
220(1)
Self: Using so that
221(1)
Guided: Using so that
222(1)
Guided: Cause and effect
222(1)
Self: Reduction of adverb clauses to modifying phrases
223(1)
Self: Modifying phrases
224(1)
Self: Reduction of adverb clauses to modifying phrases
224(1)
Self: Modifying phrases
225(1)
Self: Modifying phrases
226(1)
Guided: Modifying phrases
227(1)
Self: Modifying phrases with upon
227(1)
Self: Modifying phrases
228(1)
Guided: Modifying phrases
229(1)
Self: Error analysis: modifying phrases
230(1)
Self: Error analysis
231(1)
Guided: Speaking
232(1)
Guided: Writing
232(1)
Practice Test A---Self: Showing relationships between ideas
232(1)
Practice Test B---Guided: Showing relationships between ideas
233(2)
Showing Relationships Between Ideas---Part II
Selfstudy: using even though vs. because
235(1)
Guided Study: Using even though vs. because
236(1)
Self: Showing opposition
236(1)
Self: Showing opposition: punctuation
237(1)
Self: Despite/in spite of vs. even though/although
238(1)
Self: Using in spite of/despite and even though/though/although
239(1)
Self: Direct opposition
240(1)
Guided: Direct opposition
240(1)
Self: Cause/effect and opposition
240(2)
Guided: Cause/effect and opposition
242(1)
Guided: "If clauses"
243(1)
Guided: Using whether or not and even if
243(1)
Self: Using in cause and in the event that
244(1)
Self: Using unless vs. if and only if
244(1)
Self: Using if, only if, unless, and provided/providing that
245(1)
Self: Using only if vs. if: subject-verb inversion
246(1)
Guided: Expressing conditions
246(1)
Self: Using otherwise
247(1)
Self: Expressing conditions
247(1)
Guided: Summary of relationship words
248(1)
Self: Summary of relationship words
248(2)
Guided: Summary of relationship words
250(1)
Guided: Summary of relationship words
250(1)
Guided: Punctuation
251(1)
Guided: Showing relationships
252(2)
Guided: Showing relationships
254(1)
Guided: Giving examples
254(1)
Self: Continuing the same idea
255(1)
Guided: Error analysis
256(1)
Practice Test A---Self: Showing relationships between ideas
257(1)
Practice Test B---Guided: Showing relationships between ideas
258(2)
Conditional Sentences
Selfstudy: Conditional sentences
260(1)
Self: Conditional sentences, present/future
261(1)
Self: Conditional sentences, past time
262(1)
Self: Conditional sentences
263(1)
Self: Conditional sentences
264(1)
Guided: Conditional sentences
264(1)
Guided: Conditional sentences
265(1)
Self: using progressive forms and mixed time in conditional sentences
265(1)
Self: using progressive forms and mixed time in conditional sentences
266(1)
Self: Using could, might, and should in conditional sentences
266(1)
Self: Omitting if
267(1)
Guided: Omitting if
268(1)
Self: Implied conditions
268(1)
Self: Conditional sentences
269(2)
Guided: Expressing conditions
271(1)
Guided: Conditional sentences
272(1)
Guided: Conditional sentences
272(1)
Self: Using wish
273(1)
Self: Using wish
273(1)
Guided: Using wish
274(1)
Self: As if/as though
275(1)
Guided: As if/as though
275(1)
Guided: Conditionals
276(1)
Practice Test A---Self: Conditional sentences
277(1)
Practice Test B---Guided: Conditional sentences
278(3)
Appendix 1 SUPPLEMENTARY GRAMMAR UNITS
1---Selfstudy: Subjects, verbs, and objects
281(1)
2---Self: Transitive vs. intransitive verbs
281(1)
3---Self: Identifying prepositions
282(1)
4---Self: Sentence elements
282(1)
5---Self: Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
282(1)
6---Self: Adjectives and adverbs
283(1)
7---Self: Midsentence adverbs
283(1)
8---Self: Linking verbs
284(1)
9---Self: Linking verbs; adjectives and adverbs
284(1)
10---Guided Study: Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions
285(1)
11---Self: Personal pronouns
286(1)
12---Self: Personal pronouns, error analysis
286(1)
13---Self: Contractions
287(1)
14---Self: Review of basic question forms
288(1)
15---Self: Yes/no and information questions
289(1)
16---Self: Yes/no and information questions
290(2)
17---Guided: Information questions
292(1)
18---Guided: Information questions
292(1)
19---Guided: Information questions
293(1)
20---Guided: Asking questions
294(1)
21---Guided: Shortened yes/no questions
294(1)
22---Self: Negative questions
295(1)
23---Self: Tag questions
296(1)
24---Self: using not and no
297(1)
25---Self: Avoiding "double negatives"
297(1)
26---Self: Beginning a sentence with a negative word
298(1)
27---Self: Using articles
298(1)
28---Guided: Using articles
299(2)
Index 301

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