In the later decades of the 17th century, Scotland was a relatively poor and undeveloped country. Around 100 years later it was in the throes of an extraordicnary transformation, which laid the basis for the nation's world economic pre-eminence in the Victorian era. Two aspects of this great leap forward, the Industrial Revolution and the Highland Clearances have been much studied. This is a study of a fundamental development, of the transition from peasant to capitalist agriculture. It covers the social change in Scotland through a wide range of issues including agrarian economy, evolution of tenant farming and landlordism.