The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal

The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal

by Jared Diamond


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The Development of an Extraordinary Species

We human beings share 98 percent of our genes with chimpanzees. Yet humans are the dominant species on the planet — having founded civilizations and religions, developed intricate and diverse forms of communication, learned science, built cities, and created breathtaking works of art — while chimps remain animals concerned primarily with the basic necessities of survival. What is it about that two percent difference in DNA that has created such a divergence between evolutionary cousins? In this fascinating, provocative, passionate, funny, endlessly entertaining work, renowned Pulitzer Prize–winning author and scientist Jared Diamond explores how the extraordinary human animal, in a remarkably short time, developed the capacity to rule the world . . . and the means to irrevocably destroy it.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780060845506
Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers
Publication date: 01/03/2006
Series: P.S. Series
Pages: 432
Sales rank: 114,895
Product dimensions: 7.98(w) x 10.88(h) x 0.99(d)

About the Author

Jared Diamond is the author of the bestselling Collapse and Guns, Germs, and Steel. A professor of geography at the University of California, Los Angeles, he has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He is a MacArthur Fellow and was awarded the National Medal of Science.

Read an Excerpt

Part One

A Tale of
Three Chimps

The next time you visit a zoo, make a point of walking past the ape cages. Imagine that the apes had lost most of their hair, and imagine a cage nearby holding some unfortunate people who had no clothes and couldn't speak but were otherwise normal. Now try guessing how similar those apes are to us in their genes. For instance, would you guess that a chimpanzee shares 10 percent, 50 percent, or 99 percent of its genetic program with humans?

Then ask yourself why those apes are on exhibit in cages, and why other apes are being used for medical experiments, while it's not permissible to do either of those things to humans. Suppose it turned out that chimp genes were 99.9 percent identical to our genes, and that the important differences between humans and chimps were due to just a few genes. Would you still think it's okay to put chimps in cages and to experiment on them? Consider those unfortunate mentally defective people who have much less capacity to solve problems, to care for themselves, to communicate, to engage in social relationships, and to feel pain than do apes. What is the logic that forbids medical experiments on those people, but not on apes?

You might answer that apes are "animals," while humans are humans, and that's enough. An ethical code for treating humans shouldn't be extended to an "animal," no matter how similar its genes are to ours, and no matter what its capacity for social relationships or feeling pain. That's an arbitrary but at least self-consistent answer that can't be lightly dismissed. In that case, learning more about our ancestral relationships won't have any ethicalconsequences, but it will still satisfy our intellectual curiosity to understand where we come from. Every human society has felt a deep need to make sense of its origins, and has answered that need with its own story of the Creation. The Tale of Three Chimps is the Creation Story of our time.

For centuries it's been clear approximately where we fit into the animal kingdom. We are obviously mammals, the group of animals characterized by having hair, nursing their young, and other features. Among mammals we are obviously primates, the group of mammals including monkeys and apes. We share with other primates numerous traits lacking in most other mammals, such as flat fingernails and toenails rather than claws, hands for gripping, a thumb that can be opposed to the other four fingers, and a penis that hangs free rather than being attached to the abdomen. Already by the second century A.D., the Greek physician Galen deduced our approximate place in nature correctly when he dissected various animals and found that a monkey was "most similar to man in viscera, muscles, arteries, veins, nerves, and in the form of bones."

It's also easy to place us within the primates, among which we are obviously more similar to apes (the gibbons, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzees) than to monkeys. To name only one of the most visible signs, monkeys sport tails, which we lack along with apes. It's also clear that gibbons, with their small size and very long arms, are the most distinctive apes, and that orangutans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and humans are all more closely related to each other than any is to gibbons. But to go further with our relationships proves unexpectedly difficult. It has provoked an intense scientific debate, which revolves around three questions:

What is the detailed family tree of relationships among humans, the living apes, and extinct ancestral apes? For example, which of the living apes is our closest relative?

When did we and that closest living relative, whichever ape it is, last share a common ancestor?

What fraction of our genetic program do we share with that closest living relative?

At first, it would seem natural to assume that comparative anatomy had already solved the first of those three questions. We look especially like chimpanzees and gorillas, but differ from them in obvious features like our larger brains, upright posture, and much less body hair, as well as in many subtler points. However, on closer examination these anatomical facts aren't decisive. Depending on what anatomical characters one considers most important and how one interprets them, biologists differ as to whether we are most closely related to the orangutan (the minority view), with chimps and gorillas having branched off our family tree before we split off from orangutans, or whether we are instead closest to chimps and gorillas (the majority view), with the ancestors of orangutans having gone their separate way earlier.

Within the majority, most biologists have thought that gorillas and chimps are more like each other than either is like us, implying that we branched off before the gorillas and chimps diverged from each other. This conclusion reflects the commonsense view that chimps and gorillas can be lumped in a category termed "apes," while we're something different. However, it's also conceivable that we look distinct only because chimps and gorillas haven't changed much since we shared a common ancestor with them, while we were changing greatly in a few important and highly visible features like upright posture and brain size. In that case, humans might be most similar to gorillas, or humans might be most similar to chimps, or humans and gorillas and chimps might be roughly equidistant from each other in overall genetic makeup.

Thus, anatomists have continued to argue about the first question, the details of our family tree. Whichever tree one prefers, anatomical studies by themselves tell us nothing about the second and third questions, our time of divergence and genetic distance from apes. Perhaps, however, fossil evidence might in principle solve the questions of the correct ancestral tree and of dating, though not the question of genetic distance.

Table of Contents

Part 1Just Another Species of Big Mammal11
1A Tale of Three Chimps15
2The Great Leap Forward32
Part 2An Animal with a Strange Life Cycle59
3The Evolution of Human Sexuality67
4The Science of Adultery85
5How We Pick Our Mates and Sex Partners99
6Sexual Selection, and the Origin of Human Races110
7Why Do We Grow Old and Die?122
Part 3Uniquely Human137
8Bridges to Human Language141
9Animal Origins of Art168
10Agriculture's Mixed Blessings180
11Why Do We Smoke, Drink, and Use Dangerous Drugs?192
12Alone in a Crowded Universe205
Part 4World Conquerors217
13The Last First Contacts223
14Accidental Conquerors235
15Horses, Hittites, and History249
16In Black and White276
Part 5Reversing Our Progress Overnight311
17The Golden Age That Never Was317
18Blitzkrieg and Thanksgiving in the New World339
19The Second Cloud349
Epilogue: Nothing Learned, and Everything Forgotten?363
Further Readings371

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Third Chimpanzee 4.2 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 25 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
I decided to not put much stock anymore in the critics, who are often at odds with each other about you name it, and that includes the scholars and proffessors etc., too. In other words I say, read what you like, and I like this book, because regardless of the soundness of any theories, the book is loaded with some very interesting facts and I happen to like the authors style and temperment, occassioned also with a healthy sense of humor. He is also the author of the pulitzer winning 'Guns, Germs, and Steel' which, needless to say, I'm also enjoying.
the_home_librarian More than 1 year ago
Having read and become familiar with other writings by Diamond, I recommend that readers new to him start here. This is a brilliant book, written in the early 90's and still is every bit as valid as it ever was, which explains why it continues to remain on bookstore shelves, no doubt still selling well. Diamond is a top-notch historian, an original thinker/genius, and a damned good writer. This is not a quick read, but I can think of no other book that delivers more of a bang for every buck spent on it.
bfertig on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Most of the content in this book was written up (a little better) in his other books Guns Germs and Steel and Collapse. This books felt like it was essentially a collection of elongated articles with a little more conversational/ less didactic tone than those books which had more of a thesis/argument approach. Most chapters were interesting by themselves and could probably stand alone just fine. They were strung together alright, but I didn't have too hard a time either putting the book down for a bit or picking right back up and reading large chunks very quickly.
jmattas on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
I read Diamond's first book last, and because of that the reading experience suffered somewhat, since this one holds similar elements as the later, more detailed treatises. Anyway, this was still interesting, thanks to the analysis of human sexuality, and the origin of art and language. Also the origin of the Indo-European languages was fascinating. That particular chapter made me want to seek out more information on the topic.As always, Diamond presents his ideas in a simple, convincing way, easy for a layman to believe... I liked how he went "out on a limb" and gave his speculations in addition to recognized facts.One thing which I didn't like (or agree with) was his awful pessimism concerning the possibility of humans ever meeting extra-terrestrial beings. His main argument seemed to be the inevitable extinction of the human race, whereas I tend to believe in people. We will survive!
sailornate82 on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
An illuminating work describing the most complex animal on the planet: Humans. Each chapter touches on a unique topic, ranging from genetic similarities with chimps, how we select our sexual partners, origins of art, why humans abuse drugs/tobacco/alcohol, et cetera. Some chapters are more interesting than others, but those with a scientific curiosity should enjoy this.
addunn3 on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Excellent book, well written. Discusses why humans have come out on top of the heap though our genetic makeup varies little from chimps. What does our genetics tell us about our future? Updated information from the 1992 edition.
DarkWater on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Borrowing insight from a multitude of scientific fields, Diamond retells the human story in unwavering honesty. He places a spotlight on human sexuality and aging, the role of linguistics and art, and our adoption of agriculture and animal husbandry, not forgetting to mention our seemingly inate propensities towards addiction, genocide, and fellow species extinction. See also The Moral Animal by Wright.
petrojoh on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
A book full of half-completed ideas. Lacking solid evidence.
ppendharkar on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Jared can be somewhat repetitive at times, but his writing is lucid, intriguing and very informative. I loved the book along will all other Diamond's books.
KimBooSan on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Just an incredible book. Diamond is brilliant and thorough but his work is nonetheless very readable. This book will make you look at humanity in a completely new way.
bduguid on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
"The Third Chimpanzee" was Diamond's first major book, and it sows the seeds for his three more recent works, "Why is Sex Fun?", "Guns, Germs and Steel", and "Collapse". Many of the chapters here introduce the ideas of the later books prior to their later expansion and development.Diamond's aim is to view human history through the lens of biology: given that we are about 98% genetically identical to chimps, what light does that shed on our own life-cycle, culture, history and destiny?The book's first section briefly documents our genetic history - our divergence from a proto-chimp ancestor, and the development of homo sapiens over about six million years (homo erectus, homo habilis etc). Diamond is always keen to draw out the political implications of his science, and suggests that if we were to label chimps as "homo troglodytes" rather than "pan troglodytes", we might make different ethical decisions about their treatment. I found this first section all too-brief - I'd have liked to see a lot more detail on the biological commonalities and differences between humans and chimps.The second section reviews the human life-cycle, particulary our sexuality - why are we monogamous? How do we choose mates? What can sexual selection suggest about human races? This draws heavily on comparisons and contrasts with other animal species and I found it all interesting.The third section covers the evolution of things that might seem "uniquely human" - language, art, agriculture, drug use - and traces animal precursors to see whether we really are as unique as we think. I found all of this to be far too brief - a whole book on this area would have been interesting. I did find sympathy with Diamond's argument that the development of agriculture was as much a curse as a blessing (being the source of the apparatus for political oppression). There are strong similarities here to the ideas of radicals like John Zerzan who has expanded on the same theme.The next section enters the territory of "Guns, Germs and Steel", discussing how much of human history has been determined by geographical and biological accident e.g. the difficulty in migrating crops across continents with a strong north-south axis (Africa and America) leading to a slower pace of development. This section also asks why the human race seems to be prone to genocide, again with a strong political slant.The final section covers extinction - both analysing the countless past extinctions of other species that humans have caused, and the implications for our own future.Throughout, the book's willingness to spell out political implications is very welcome. I also appreciated the extent to which the content draws on Diamond's own extensive work in New Guinea. On the downside, there are just too many ideas here, and it would be nice to see them all explored at greater length - although of course that's exactly what the author has since done in other books.
_Greg on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Humans are genetically so close to the two species of chimpanzees and have so much in common with them that only our vanity puts us in a separate genus. In this delightful, fascinating and illuminating book Jared Diamond sheds much light on human nature and also makes a strong case for their being three species of chimpanzee: pan, bonobo and homo.
Go4Jugular More than 1 year ago
Precursor to his epic Guns, Germs, and Steel (GGS), in this book author Diamond looks at a wide range of topics, primarily behavioral, and how they may have come into being from an evolutionary perspective. It's not quite on the level of GGS, but still a very readable and scientifically rigorous examination of our sexuality, language and art, and even destructive behaviors, that may be, though often are not, uniquely human. Best read before GGS, as it sets up that book quite nicely.
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Treeman More than 1 year ago
A earlier version of many themes in Guns, Germs, and Iron plus some biological perspectives. Good reasons why we should be more humble about our place in the world
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Guest More than 1 year ago
Mr. Diamond takes a datailed and provocative look at humanity. He sees exposes our animal origins and demonstrates how our primitive side is still active today. As a bird watcher observes birds, Diamond studies people. The human animal within us all will be delighted by this new source of insight.
Guest More than 1 year ago
Overall a very interesting book indeed and an ideal supplement to Dawkins's classic 'The selfish gene.' While not containing the scientific rigour of the latter, it is nonetheless reccommended reading due to its breadth, lively style and ambition. Currently reading 'Guns,Germs and Steel' and am (so far) equally impressed.