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The Ruling Elite
Death, Destruction, and Domination
By Deanna Spingola
Trafford PublishingCopyright © 2014 Deanna Spingola
All rights reserved.
Hitler and the Rebirth of Germany
The Advent of Adolf Hitler
On October 14, 1918, in Flanders, the British military, using mustard gas as the First World War drew to a close, assaulted German soldiers in Regiment Sixteen of the Bavarian Reserve Infantry, including Adolf Hitler. He was a message courier who had spent four years dodging bullets in France and Belgium. In addition to the First Battle of Ypres, he took part in the battles of the Somme, the Arras, and Passchendaele. He was decorated twice for bravery, with the Iron Cross, Second Class, in 1914 and with the Iron Cross, First Class, in 1918, a medal rarely awarded to enlisted men. After the Kaiser's abdication, Germany was led by a new coalition government that included Friedrich Ebert; Philipp Scheidemann, a Freemason; and other top members of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). While recovering in a military hospital in Pomerania from the effects of gassing, Hitler learned of the armistice signed on November 11, 1918.
William L. Shirer reports that with more than two million Germans dead, Hitler, burned and temporarily blinded, said, "Did all this happen only so that a gang of wretched criminals could lay hands on the Fatherland?" In December 1918, Hitler volunteered for guard duty at a POW camp at Traunstein where Germany held more than a thousand civil and regular prisoners. By the end of January 1919, authorities released them and closed the camp. Then Hitler went to Munich.
In April and May 1919, Hitler was with List Regiment, part of the Bavarian Reserve Infantry, domiciled on Munich's outskirts in the Maximillian II Barracks. The communists seized power in Bavaria on April 12. A few of the disgruntled men in his regiment joined them, while others, including Hitler, refused to join Germany's real enemy. The communists sent men to arrest him, but he managed to avoid them. In seizing power, the communists did not disturb one Jewish house, perhaps following a pattern, as in Paris in 1871, where they destroyed a huge amount of property, except Rothschild homes, which remained completely intact. Because many Jews embraced communism, anti-Semitism became more prevalent in Germany.
Hitler was a perceptive student of history but had not yet developed his political ideas. His avid reading probably made him more knowledgeable than many university graduates. While living in Vienna, he observed the communist expansion. From 1919 to 1921, he borrowed and read books from Krohn's library at the National Socialist Institute, along with works by German writers and philosophers, many of which he would cite in Mein Kampf. He attended a political instruction course designed for the troops and was then given the job of "inoculating the men" against the propaganda disseminated by socialists, pacifists, and other destructive groups. During this period, he recognized that he had some political ability and interest.
Hitler obtained a job in the Press and News Bureau of the Army Political Department, where he met Major-General Franz Ritter von Epp and his adjutant, Captain Ernst Röhm. In April 1919, von Epp created a volunteer military group, the Freikorps, which ultimately quashed the Red Republic in Munich and brought down its revolutionary Councils Republic in April/May 1919. Röhm and many other discouraged soldiers joined the German Workers' Party that Anton Drexler had established on March 7, 1918, for the working class and nationalists.
When German troops recaptured Munich, Hitler began working for the military Commission of Inquiry, an agency that tried those soldiers who had joined the communists. He testified against these men, and firing squads soon began executing the traitors. His superiors considered him an "exemplary soldier" who had proven his readiness to support the government against the Marxists. In early June 1919, Captain Karl Mayr, part of an army intelligence division, recruited Hitler as an undercover agent, a job that required him to attend anti-Bolshevik lectures and later, with the knowledge acquired in those lectures, to act as an "anti-Bolshevik educational speaker," instructing soldiers in the Munich barracks.
In those classes, Professor Karl Alexander von Muller, a lecturer, observed Hitler's rhetorical skills in his animated discussion with other students and told Captain Mayr that he was "a natural-born speaker." In June 1919, the same month that the Versailles Treaty was imposed, Muller presented his historical ideas and claimed that Germans were a "master race," as opposed to the Jews. This echoed what Hitler had heard in the Austrian schools that he had attended. Europe, at the time, promoted nationalism over internationalism. Muller's negative ideas about the Jews offended a fellow student. When it was Hitler's turn to participate, he passionately defended the professor's theories, and most of the other students supported him.
Scheidemann proclaimed the Weimar Republic (1919-33) to replace the imperial form of government. German nationalists referred to Ebert, Matthias Erzberger, and Walther Rathenau as the "November criminals," and now they were leading the newly formed Weimar Republic. Its first president, Ebert, signed the Weimar constitution into law on August 11, 1919. Captain Mayr instructed Hitler to attend a meeting of Drexler's German Workers' Party, which the military feared might be promoting a Marxist revolution. On September 12, he attended his first party meeting in a Munich beer cellar with about twenty-five other people. He recognized that this party's political philosophies—nationalism and anti- Semitism—were compatible with his own but felt that the party was ineffectively organized.
One attendee suggested that Bavaria secede from Germany and become a part of Austria. Hitler denounced the proposal and in doing so favorably impressed Drexler, who gave him a copy of his autobiographical pamphlet and invited him to join the fifty-three-member party, something that Captain Mayr encouraged him to do. Drexler sent Hitler an invitation to attend the party's next committee meeting. After considering the matter for two days, Hitler accepted Drexler's invitation to serve on the executive committee. Drexler then appointed Hitler as the party's propaganda manager. On April 1, 1920, Hitler would leave the army and dedicate his full time and energy to the party.
At a party meeting, Gottfried Feder presented his monetary views. Hitler later wrote, "For the first time in my life I heard a discussion which dealt with the principles of stock-exchange capital and capital which was used for loan activities ... When I heard Gottfried Feder's first lecture on The Abolition of the Interest-Servitude, I understood immediately that here was a truth of transcendental importance for the future of the German people. The absolute separation of stock-exchange capital from the economic life of the nation would make it possible to oppose the process of internationalization in German business without at the same time attacking capital as such, for to do this would jeopardize the foundations of our national independence." He perceived how international financiers had enslaved entire populations by controlling a nation's currency and credit.
Feder, an economist, studied the relationship of finance and politics particularly during World War I. He developed a growing antagonism to what he called "Jewish finance capitalism" and wealthy bankers. He wrote a "manifesto on breaking the shackles of interest." He was an early member of the German Workers' Party and was its economic theoretician. He believed that the state should generate and regulate the money supply, using a national bank. At that time, privately owned banks printed and controlled money and charged usurious rates for the use of their currency. Feder's views were similar to the stipulations contained in the US Constitution.
The Beer Hall Putsch
On June 11, 1922, the Jewish-owned Viennese newspaper Neue Freie Presse, which employed Theodor Herzl, published an article by Friedrich Meinecke about the roots of the claims of treason behind the armistice. From 1922 to 1923, as the inflated Reichmark was bottoming out due to monetary manipulation, Hitler and his followers encouraged nationalism, a feeling to which a discouraged yet hopeful populace could readily relate. His group, which battled the communists, often in bloody street fighting, had its own militia, the Sturmabteilung (SA), superseded on April 4, 1925, by the Schutzstaffel (SS) under Heinrich Himmler. Hitler's group countered the strength of the communists throughout Bavaria. Meanwhile, the Bavarian government did little to prevent the communists' seizure of power.
Hitler easily assumed political leadership of several patriotic associations in Bavaria, composed of many former soldiers and known collectively as the Kampfbund. He and other Kampfbund leaders believed that they had to seize power in Berlin or their followers would turn to the communists for solutions to economic problems. The Bavarian government opposed Berlin's resolution to abandon its struggle against the Franco-Belgian occupation of the Rhineland and the Ruhr. On September 26, 1923, Bavarian Prime Minister Eugen von Knilling declared a state of emergency and gave Gustav von Kahr, the state commissioner, authority. On September 27, Hitler announced that he would hold fourteen public meetings. Kahr, with the support of Colonel Hans von Seißer, head of the Bavarian State Police, and General Otto von Lossow, banned Hitler's meetings. Hitler and General Erich Ludendorff wanted von Kahr's support, but he, Seißer, and Lossow planned to establish a nationalist regime without Hitler.
With the support of his nationalist group, Hitler contemplated a march like Benito Mussolini's march on Rome from October 22-29, 1922. In this march on Berlin, he was counting on the military or those working in Berlin's Weimar government to "do the dirty work" and get rid of the "hated republic" and create an "authoritarian regime." The Bavarians would benefit from a putsch while retaining an autonomous Bavaria. Kahr, Seißer, and Lossow considered their own assault against Berlin and convened on the night of November 8, 1923, in the Bürgerbräu Keller in Munich to strategize. Some people claim that Hitler worked with the Bolsheviks and that he selected this date to commemorate their revolution in Russia. Yet it was Kahr, Seißer, and Lossow who chose the date. It was also the date when the November criminals, now part of the Weimar government, had sold out Germany.
Hitler intended to use Munich as a base for a greater offensive against the Weimar government. However, he quickly perceived that Kahr had decided to usurp the movement. Hitler, with about six hundred Sturmabteilung, marched on the beer hall where Kahr was speaking to three thousand people. Hitler's forces surrounded the hall and directed a machine gun at the doors. Hitler, Hermann Göring, Alfred Rosenberg, Rudolf Hess, Ernst Hanfstaengl, Ulrich Graf, Johann Aigner, Adolf Lenk, Max Amann, Wilhelm Adam, and others entered the building at 8:30 p.m. and marched through the crowd. Hitler fired a pistol shot into the ceiling and announced that his group was going to form a new government in Berlin.
Hitler, Hess, Lenk, and Graf took Kahr, Seißer, and Lossow into another room and pleaded for their support, since their influence could bring in the military and the police. Kahr refused to collaborate. Meanwhile, Göring and others delivered speeches in the main hall in an attempt to keep everyone calm, barring anyone from leaving, though some escaped through the kitchen. Hitler, Hess, and Lenk returned to the auditorium where Hitler delivered a speech while Ernst Pöhner, Friedrich Weber, and Hermann Kriebel guarded Kahr. In his extemporaneous speech, Hitler assured his highly receptive listeners that he did not oppose Kahr and encouraged them to support him, Seißer, and Lossow in a combined battle to save the Fatherland.
He returned to the room where his companions were holding the three men, who had heard what had transpired in the auditorium. Hitler directed Göring and Hess to take Knilling and several other officials of the Bavarian government into custody. Pöhner, Weber, and Kriebel, in Hitler's absence, tried to persuade Kahr to consider his options, but he remained unaffected. Ludendorff arrived and finally convinced Kahr, Seißer, and Lossow to honor their sense of duty. After Hitler left the hall, Ludendorff, based on their promises, allowed the three men to leave at about 10:30 p.m. Once free, they reneged. When Hitler returned to the hall and realized that the momentum had ceased, he vacillated for several hours about a march on Berlin and failed even to occupy Munich. During that time, Bavarian authorities organized their forces. Units of Kampfbund, a movement with more than fifty thousand members, attempted to seize and to occupy buildings. However, they did not select the right buildings, such as the state offices and the communications centers.
Meanwhile, perplexed military, police, and civilian leaders tried to determine whom to follow. At about 3:00 a.m., officers from the local unit of the Reichswehr observed some of Röhm's men leaving the hall and called for reinforcements. Hitler ordered the seizure of Munich city council members as hostages. By midmorning on November 9, he recognized that the putsch was not going as planned and that many were ready to abandon it. However, Ludendorff said, "We will march!" Röhm and Hitler had about two thousand men. The general proposed that they go to Munich and take over. He assumed, because of his position during World War I, that no one would obstruct him or fire on him. He also believed that the police and many in the army would join them. However, about a hundred armed policemen halted their march. Both sides fired shots, and within minutes, sixteen NSDAP members and four police officers were dead. The scuffle also injured Hitler and Göring. Hitler's bodyguard, Ulrich Graf, attempting to shield Hitler, died in the battle.
The nationalist group scattered, but many were arrested, including Ludendorff and Hitler, two days later. Göring, Hanfstaengl, and Hess escaped to Austria. On Wednesday, about three thousand students from Munich University rioted until they learned of Hitler's arrest on Friday. They referred to Kahr, Seißer, and Lossow as traitors. In 1937, Shirer claimed that Ludendorff "refused to have anything to do with" Hitler following the putsch. Yet the Landsberg prison visitors' book indicates that he visited Hitler numerous times, as reported in Der Spiegel on June 23, 2006.
The authorities of the Bavarian People's Court charged Hitler with high treason. The head judge, Georg Neithardt, was impressed by Hitler during the five-week trial. Hitler said that Berlin's government betrayed Germany by signing the Versailles Treaty. Local newspapers daily reported his words, giving wide exposure to his views, which may have influenced the court. On April 1, 1924, he received the lightest "allowable sentence" of five years. He served eight months and paid a fine of five hundred Reichmarks. In Landsberg prison, Hess transcribed and assisted in the editing of Hitler's book, Mein Kampf. Professor Karl Ernst Haushofer, Hess's mentor in college, visited them about eight times. Hitler assured Hess that it would require seven to twelve years for the NSDAP to create a new government for Germany.
Göring, who suffered severe wounds in his leg and his groin, ultimately became morphine dependent. During his incarceration, Hitler concluded that revolution was ineffective in producing lasting change and that to legitimize his approach and win the hearts and minds of the German people, he had to seek political office instead of using force. In April 1924, authorities released Röhm from jail, where he possibly discovered his homosexual proclivities, which Hitler later acknowledged. Hitler appointed him commander of the Sturmabteilung. Preferring to make his own policies, Rohm abandoned Hitler, began gathering allies, spies, and informants, and founded the Frontbann, a new version of the pre-putsch Combat League.
On May 4, 1924, Germany held elections, and despite its leader being incarcerated, the NSDAP, banned by the government and renamed the National Socialist Freedom Movement (NSFB), won 1,918,329 votes and thirty-two seats in the 493-member Reichstag. Two of those seats were held by Ludendorff and Rohm. Under the leadership of the leftist Strasser brothers, Otto and Gregor, the party lost eighteen of those seats in the election on December 7, 1924. Hurt by the Strassers' ideology, the party gained only 907,300 votes.
Excerpted from The Ruling Elite by Deanna Spingola. Copyright © 2014 Deanna Spingola. Excerpted by permission of Trafford Publishing.
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Table of Contents
ContentsHitler and the Rebirth of Germany, 1,
The Advent of Adolf Hitler, 1,
Hitler's Assumption of Power, 16,
The Worldwide Masonic Brotherhood, 29,
The Official History of Adolf Hitler, 39,
The Dictator, Adolf Hitler, 52,
"We Are Going to Lick that Fellow Hitler", 61,
Prewar Maneuvers, 70,
Birobidjan, a Jewish Sanctuary, 70,
The Ha'avara Agreement, 80,
FDR, a Red in the White House, 93,
The Genesis of Factory Farming, 114,
Reporting the "News" from Europe, 129,
World War II in Europe, 143,
Ukraine: Assault against the Middle Class, 143,
Economic Assault against Germany, 1933, 162,
Apprehending Dangerous Aliens, 196,
Kristallnacht, a False Flag, 209,
Dangling the Czechoslovakian Carrot, 226,
Winston Churchill, the Warmonger, 247,
Immigration, Not Extermination, 259,
Stage-Managing Perceptions to Create Victimization, 271,
The Deceptions behind the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, 280,
Establishing Guilt: The Gleiwitz Incident, 295,
The Resumption of World Revolution, 305,
The Creation of Poland, 324,
The Germans Shoot Back, 342,
The Peace Mission of Rudolf Hess, 385,
The Duke of Kent, Royal Peacemaker, 409,
Churchill and Roosevelt, Longtime Cohorts, 423,
Lend-Lease: Warfare Welfare, 431,
Operation Barbarossa, 445,
Stalin's Forced Labor Camps, 462,
Soviet Scorched-Earth Warfare: Facts and Consequences, 473,
Germany's Elite Traitors, 484,
Marketing Mass Murder, 498,
Jewish Claims of Genocide, 508,
Manipulating the Numbers for Maximum Exploitation, 522,
Bomber Command: Victory through Air Power, 530,
Warfare by Firestorm, Germany, 540,
Famine and Genocide, 556,
Post-World War II, 563,
Women: Prize Plunder for the Allies, 563,
The Holocaust: Central to the New World Order, 574,
The Morgenthau Extermination Plan, 596,
Publicizing the German Camps, 614,
Eisenhower, Baruch's Man in Europe, 638,
General Patton, a Credible Witness, 652,
Raphael Lemkin and the Etymology of "Genocide", 662,
Preparing for Nuremberg, 673,
Nuremberg, the Victors' Vengeance, 687,
Obedience, a Psychological Mechanism, 706,
Slave Laborers Working for the Allies, 714,
The London Cage and the Germans, 720,
Torturing the Germans for Revenge, 725,
One Man Fighting, Two Men Looting, Three Men Painting Rainbows, 734,
The Allies' Ethnic Cleansing in Europe, 746,