Mayo Clinic Guide to Fertility and Conception

Mayo Clinic Guide to Fertility and Conception


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Deciding to start or build a family is a life-changing decision, and, once the choice is made, there's a whole new set of unknowns—including how challenging the journey will be. For the first time, fertility experts at Mayo Clinic offer an essential guide for those who want to have a baby. With color photographs and graphics throughout, this user-friendly yet comprehensive book provides answers and explanations on nearly every aspect of achieving a successful pregnancy: lifestyle and nutrition; the intricacies of natural conception; common fertility problems; the latest medical treatments (including intrauterine insemination,IVF, and donors); and information on special situations (including fertility preservation, chosen single parenthood, same-sex couples, and more).

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781561487875
Publisher: Hachette Books
Publication date: 04/28/2015
Pages: 288
Sales rank: 466,409
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Jani R. Jensen, M.D., is a Mayo specialist in the division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility and director of the In Vitro Fertilization Program at Mayo Clinic.

Elizabeth A. Stewart, M.D., is the chair of Mayo's division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility.

Table of Contents

Part 1 Getting deadly for Pregnancy 14

Chapter 1 Adjusting your lifestyle 15

Weight 16

Why it matters

Find your BMI

Managing weight

Exercise 18

Moderate exercise is best

Athletes and fertility

Exercise and weight Getting started

A well-rounded fitness program

Stress 20

Your body and stress

Fertility and stress

Sex and stress Relaxation techniques

Sleep 24

Sleep and your overall health

Night shifts and fertility

Stops for good sleep

Alcohol, tobacco and other toxins 26



Other recreational drugs

Other toxic substances

Diet 29

Dawn's story 30

Chapter 2 Eating to conceive 33

Carbohydrates: Natural, not processed 34

Garbs explained

Carbs and blood sugar

Carbs and fertility

Dietary fats: Go for good fats 35

Phasing out trans fat

Look at the label

What should you eat?

Protein: Eat more beans and nuts 37

A protein plan

Dairy products: Creamier is better 39

Caffeine and conception 40

Focus on your health 42

Chapter 3 Additional preparations 45

Going off birth control 45

Medications and supplements 46

Prenatal vitamins 48

Vaccinations 49

Guide to vaccinations and pregnancy

Vaccines during pregnancy

Chronic medical conditions 52

Genetic tests 53

Take heart 55

Chapter 4 Producing healthy sperm 57

Sperm health and fertility 57




How to improve sperm health 60

Maintain a healthy weight

Eat a healthy diet


Manage stress Prevent and treat infections

What to avoid 64

Part 2 How to Get Pregnant 66

Chapter 5 How babies are made 67

Reproductive organs 67

Femi organs

Male organs

Ovulation 69

Fertilization 71

Implantation 72

Pregnancy 73

Multiple babies 74

Chapter 6 Ovulation and fertility signs 77

Your menstrual cycle 77

The follicular phase: Prep time

The ovulatory phase: Go time

The luteal phase: Resolution time

Your fertility window 79

Use a calendar

Monitor your temperature

Watch for cervical changes

Putting it all together

Products that can help 82

Ovulation predictor kits

Fertility monitor

Other devices

Don't be afraid to seek help 85

Amber's story 86

Chapter 7 Tips for increased success 89

Plan ahead 89

Know your window 90

Have sex often 91

Frequent sex and semen quality

Forget about positions and routines 93

Avoid lubricants 93

Have fun 95

Chapter 8 Are you pregnant? 97

Early signs and symptoms 97

Home pregnancy tests 98

Reading the results

Test accuracy

Follow-up blood test

When to see a care provider 101

Beeding Emergency symptoms

Miscarriage and ectopic oregnancy

Chapter 9 Miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy 105

Miscarriage 105

Signs and symptoms


Getting medical attention Treatment


Recurrent pregnancy loss 109




Ectopic pregnancy 112

Signs and symptoms


Heterotopic pregnancy Future pregnancies

Trying again 114

Emotional recovery

Physical recovery

Kristen and Chris' story 116

Common Fertility Problems

Part 3 Common Fertility Problems 118

Chapter 10 Effect of age on pregnancy 119

Female reproductive life span 119

Female fertility and age 120

Fertility over the years

What about today?

Related risks 123

Pregnancy lose

Chromosomal abnormalities

Other complications

Male fertility and age 126

Effect on pregnancy rates

Health of aging sperm

Related risks 128

When to seek help 128

Jane's story 130

Chapter 11 Female problems: Common and unusual 133

Ovulation and hormone issues 134

Thyroid problems

Elevated prolactin

Hypothalamic dysfunction

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Primary ovarian insufficiency

Luteal phase defect

Structural and anatomical issues 140

Fallopian tube damage or blockage


Endometriosis Congenital abnormalities

'Tipped uterus'

Uterine growths

Cervical narrowing or blockage

Unexplained infertility 148

Chapter 12 Male problems: Common and unusual 151

Sperm matters 152

What causes a low sperm count?

When there's no sperm Leukocytospermia

Structural and anatomical issues 155


Undescended testicles

Sperm duct abnormalities Hypospadias


Hormone imbalances 158

Primary kypogonadism

Secondary hypogonaoism

Ejaculation issues 161

Retrograde ejaculation and anejaculation

Ereclile dysfunction

Chromosome defects 163

What happens next? 164

Evaluating infertility: A summary 165

Part 4 When You Need Some Help 166

Chapter 13 Seeing a doctor 167

When to see a doctor 167

Who should you see?

How to choose a fertility doctor or clinic

What to expect 170

Medical history

Physical exam

Fertility tests

Tests for women 172

Ovulation tests

Ovarian reserve tests

Uterine and fallopian tube tests Hormone Tests

Tests for men 177

Semen analysis

Other tests

Keeping a positive outlook 178

Lisa and Scott's story 180

Chapter 14 Medications and surgery 183

Many options 184

Fertility medications 184


Aromatase inhibitors

Gonadotropins Human chorionic gonadotropin


Medications for specific conditions 188

Fertility procedures and surgeries 189

Intrauterine insemination

Surgical procedures for women

Surgical procedures for men

Looking ahead 195

Chapter 15 Reproductive assistance 197

What is assisted reproductive technology? 197

The first test-tube babies

IVF today

How IVF works 201


Egg retrieval

Sperm collection or retrieval

Fertilization Embryo transfer

Freezing extra embryos

Risks of IVF

Advanced ART 213

Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)

Gamete intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) Assisted hatching

Preimplantation genetic testing

The success of ART 216


Extra embryos

Treating infertility: A summary 218

Chapter 16 Third-party reproduction 221

Donor eggs 222

Do you need donor eggs?

How egg donation works

Donor sperm 224

Do you need donor sperm?

How donor sperm works

Donor embryos 227

Surrogates and gestational carriers 227

Do you need a gestational carrier?

How gestational careers work

Selecting a donor 229

Egg donor

Sperm donor

Gestational carrier

Known donor

Costs and contracts 232

Donor sperm

Donor eggs

Donor embryos

Gestational carriers

Known donors

Take your time 233

Ashley and Susie's story 234

Chapter 17 Coping and support 237

Stress and infertility 238

Causes of stress

Sexual dysfunction

When to seek help

Coping techniques 242

Support groups and counseling

Other coping techniques

Part 5 Special Considerations 246

Chapter 13 Fertility preservation 247

Reasons for fertility preservation 247


Other medical conditions

Personal reasons

Seeing a specialist 249

Options for women 249

Embryo cryopreservation

Oocyte cryopreservation

Radiation shielding Ovarian transposition

Conizanon and radical trachelectomy

Options for men 253

Sperm cryopreservation

Radiation shielding

Ovarian transposition

Conizanen and radical trachelectomy

Options for men 253

Sperm cryopreservation

Radianon shielding

Looking forward 255

Chapter 19 Unique circumstances 257

Choosing single parenthood 257

Issues to consider

Reproduction options 258

Women without a male partner

Men without a female partner Same-sex couples

Cultural and religious considerations 263

Concerns about in vitro fertilization

Intercourse restrictions Sperm collection

Melissa's story 264

Chapter 20 Other options 267

When to consider alternatives 267

Deciding as a couple

Adoption 269

Issues to consider

Selecting an adoption resource

How to begin the process

Forums and support groups

Child-free living 271

Myths and facts about child-free living

The benefits of child-free living

Other ways to get involved with children

Finding support 273

Additional resources 274

Index 275

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