Since the mid-sixteenth century, Christianity has been notably active in Japan, and yet Japan remains one of the least- evangelized nations in the world. The Japanese and Christianity is an attempt to work out an appropriate response to the question, "What are the main reasons why Christianity has not yet succeeded in Japan?" It investigates various factors, i.e. the societal, cultural, historical, missiological and political dimensions of Christianity in Japan, in searching for possible answers. Generally, Christianity's lack of quantitative success must be understood in the context of all of these factors, particularly; the worldview and political factors are the most salient ones. This research is based on extended literature study and draws from multiple sources across various disciplines, sources that are in English and generally based upon the work of both Japanese and Western scholars.