“Compelling….Kaku thinks with great breadth, and the vistas he presents us are worth the trip”
—The New York Times Book Review
The New York Times best-selling author of PHYSICS OF THE IMPOSSIBLE, PHYSICS OF THE FUTURE and HYPERSPACE tackles the most fascinating and complex object in the known universe: the human brain.
For the first time in history, the secrets of the living brain are being revealed by a battery of high tech brain scans devised by physicists. Now what was once solely the province of science fiction has become a startling reality. Recording memories, telepathy, videotaping our dreams, mind control, avatars, and telekinesis are not only possible; they already exist.
THE FUTURE OF THE MIND gives us an authoritative and compelling look at the astonishing research being done in top laboratories around the world—all based on the latest advancements in neuroscience and physics. One day we might have a "smart pill" that can enhance our cognition; be able to upload our brain to a computer, neuron for neuron; send thoughts and emotions around the world on a "brain-net"; control computers and robots with our mind; push the very limits of immortality; and perhaps even send our consciousness across the universe.
Dr. Kaku takes us on a grand tour of what the future might hold, giving us not only a solid sense of how the brain functions but also how these technologies will change our daily lives. He even presents a radically new way to think about "consciousness" and applies it to provide fresh insight into mental illness, artificial intelligence and alien consciousness.
With Dr. Kaku's deep understanding of modern science and keen eye for future developments, THE FUTURE OF THE MIND is a scientific tour de force--an extraordinary, mind-boggling exploration of the frontiers of neuroscience.
|Publisher:||Penguin Random House Audio Publishing Group|
|Product dimensions:||5.10(w) x 5.90(h) x 1.60(d)|
About the Author
MICHIO KAKU is a professor of physics at the City University of New York, cofounder of string field theory, and the author of several widely acclaimed science books, including Hyperspace, Beyond Einstein, Physics of the Impossible, and Physics of the Future.
Read an Excerpt
Houdini believed that telepathy was impossible. But science is proving
Telepathy is now the subject of intense research at universities around the world, where scientists have already been able to use advanced sensors to read individual words, images, and thoughts in a person’s brain. This could alter the way we communicate with stroke and accident victims who are
“locked in” their bodies, unable to articulate their thoughts except through blinks. But that’s just the start. Telepathy might also radically change the way we interact with computers and the outside world.
Indeed, in a recent “Next 5 in 5 Forecast,” which predicts five revolutionary developments in the next five years, IBM scientists claimed that we will be able to mentally communicate with computers, perhaps replacing the mouse and voice commands. This means using the power of the mind to call people on the phone, pay credit card bills, drive cars, make appointments,
create beautiful symphonies and works of art, etc. The possibilities are endless,
and it seems that everyone— from computer giants, educators, video game companies, and music studios to the Pentagon— is converging on this technology.
True telepathy, found in science-fiction and fantasy novels, is not possible without outside assistance. As we know, the brain is electrical. In general,
anytime an electron is accelerated, it gives off electromagnetic radiation. The same holds true for electrons oscillating inside the brain, which broadcasts radio waves. But these signals are too faint to be detected by others, and even if we could perceive these radio waves, it would be difficult to make sense of them. Evolution has not given us the ability to decipher this collection of random radio signals, but computers can. Scientists have been able to get crude approximations of a person’s thoughts using EEG scans. Subjects would put on a helmet with EEG sensors and concentrate on certain pictures— say, the image of a car. The EEG signals were then recorded for each image and eventually a rudimentary dictionary of thought was created,
with a one- to- one correspondence between a person’s thoughts and the EEG
image. Then, when a person was shown a picture of another car, the computer would recognize the EEG pattern as being from a car.
The advantage of EEG sensors is that they are noninvasive and quick.
You simply put a helmet containing many electrodes onto the surface of the brain and the EEG can rapidly identify signals that change every millisecond.
But the problem with EEG sensors, as we have seen, is that electromagnetic waves deteriorate as they pass through the skull, and it is difficult to locate their precise source. This method can tell if you are thinking of a car or a house, but it cannot re- create an image of the car. That is where Dr. Jack Gallant’s work comes in.
VIDEOS OF THE MIND
The epicenter for much of this research is the University of California at
Berkeley, where I received my own Ph.D. in theoretical physics years ago. I
had the pleasure of touring the laboratory of Dr. Gallant, whose group has accomplished a feat once considered to be impossible: videotaping people’s thoughts. “This is a major leap forward reconstructing internal imagery. We are opening a window into the movies in our mind,” says Gallant.
When I visited his laboratory, the first thing I noticed was the team of young, eager postdoctoral and graduate students huddled in front of their computer screens, looking intently at video images that were reconstructed from someone’s brain scan. Talking to Gallant’s team, you feel as though you are witnessing scientific history in the making.
Gallant explained to me that first the subject lies flat on a stretcher, which is slowly inserted headfirst into a huge, state- of- the- art MRI machine, costing upward of $3 million. The subject is then shown several movie clips (such as movie trailers readily available on YouTube). To accumulate enough data,
the subject has to sit motionless for hours watching these clips, a truly arduous task. I asked one of the postdocs, Dr. Shinji Nishimoto, how they found volunteers who were willing to lie still for hours on end with only fragments of video footage to occupy the time. He said the people in the room, the grad students and postdocs, volunteered to be guinea pigs for their own research.
As the subject watches the movies, the MRI machine creates a 3- D image of the blood flow within the brain. The MRI image looks like a vast collection of thirty thousand dots, or voxels. Each voxel represents a pinpoint of neural energy, and the color of the dot corresponds to the intensity of the signal and blood flow. Red dots represent points of large neural activity, while blue dots represent points of less activity. (The final image looks very much like thousands of Christmas lights in the shape of the brain. Immediately you can see that the brain is concentrating most of its mental energy in the visual cortex, which is located at the back of the brain, while watching these videos.)
Gallant’s MRI machine is so powerful it can identify two to three hundred distinct regions of the brain and, on average, can take snapshots that have one hundred dots per region of the brain. (One goal for future generations of MRI technology is to provide an even sharper resolution by increasing the number of dots per region of the brain.)
At first, this 3- D collection of colored dots looks like gibberish. But after years of research, Dr. Gallant and his colleagues have developed a mathematical formula that begins to find relationships between certain features of a picture (edges, textures, intensity, etc.) and the MRI voxels. For example, if you look at a boundary, you’ll notice it’s a region separating lighter and darker areas, and hence the edge generates a certain pattern of voxels. By having subject after subject view such a large library of movie clips, this mathematical formula is refined, allowing the computer to analyze how all sorts of images are converted into MRI voxels. Eventually the scientists were able to ascertain a direct correlation between certain MRI patterns of voxels and features within each picture.
At this point, the subject is then shown another movie trailer. The computer analyzes the voxels generated during this viewing and re- creates a rough approximation of the original image. (The computer selects images from one hundred movie clips that most closely resemble the one that the subject just saw and then merges images to create a close approximation.) In this way, the computer is able to create a fuzzy video of the visual imagery going through your mind. Dr. Gallant’s mathematical formula is so versatile that it can take a collection of MRI voxels and convert it into a picture, or it can do the reverse, taking a picture and then converting it to MRI voxels.
I had a chance to view the video created by Dr. Gallant’s group, and it was very impressive. Watching it was like viewing a movie with faces, animals,
street scenes, and buildings through dark glasses. Although you could not see the details within each face or animal, you could clearly identify the kind of object you were seeing.
Not only can this program decode what you are looking at, it can also decode imaginary images circulating in your head. Let’s say you are asked to think of the Mona Lisa. We know from MRI scans that even though you’re not viewing the painting with your eyes, the visual cortex of your brain will light up. Dr. Gallant’s program then scans your brain while you are thinking of the Mona Lisa and flips through its data files of pictures, trying to find the closest match. In one experiment I saw, the computer selected a picture of the actress Salma Hayek as the closest approximation to the Mona Lisa. Of course, the average person can easily recognize hundreds of faces, but the fact that the computer analyzed an image within a person’s brain and then picked out this picture from millions of random pictures at its disposal is still impressive.
The goal of this whole process is to create an accurate dictionary that allows you to rapidly match an object in the real world with the MRI pattern in your brain. In general, a detailed match is very difficult and will take years,
but some categories are actually easy to read just by flipping through some photographs. Dr. Stanislas Dehaene of the Collège de France in Paris was examining MRI scans of the parietal lobe, where numbers are recognized,
when one of his postdocs casually mentioned that just by quickly scanning the MRI pattern, he could tell what number the subject was looking at. In fact, certain numbers created distinctive patterns on the MRI scan. He notes,
“If you take 200 voxels in this area, and look at which of them are active and which are inactive, you can construct a machine-learning device that decodes which number is being held in memory.”
This leaves open the question of when we might be able to have picture quality videos of our thoughts. Unfortunately, information is lost when a person is visualizing an image. Brain scans corroborate this. When you compare the MRI scan of the brain as it is looking at a flower to an MRI scan as the brain is thinking about a flower, you immediately see that the second image has far fewer dots than the first. So although this technology will vastly improve in the coming years, it will never be perfect. (I once read a short story in which a man meets a genie who offers to create anything that the person can imagine. The man immediately asks for a luxury car, a jet plane, and a million dollars. At first, the man is ecstatic. But when he looks at these items in detail, he sees that the car and the plane have no engines, and the image on the cash is all blurred. Everything is useless. This is because our memories are only approximations of the real thing.)
But given the rapidity with which scientists are beginning to decode the
MRI patterns in the brain, will we soon be able to actually read words and thoughts circulating in the mind?
READING THE MIND
In fact, in a building next to Gallant’s laboratory, Dr. Brian Pasley and his colleagues are literally reading thoughts— at least in principle. One of the postdocs there, Dr. Sara Szczepanski, explained to me how they are able to identify words inside the mind.
The scientists used what is called ECOG (electrocorticogram) technology,
which is a vast improvement over the jumble of signals that EEG scans produce. ECOG scans are unprecedented in accuracy and resolution, since signals are directly recorded from the brain and do not pass through the skull. The flipside is that one has to remove a portion of the skull to place a mesh, containing sixty-four electrodes in an eight-by-eight grid, directly on top of the exposed brain.
Luckily they were able to get permission to conduct experiments with
ECOG scans on epileptic patients, who were suffering from debilitating seizures.
The ECOG mesh was placed on the patients’ brains while open- brain surgery was being performed by doctors at the nearby University of California at San Francisco.
As the patients hear various words, signals from their brains pass through the electrodes and are then recorded. Eventually a dictionary is formed,
matching the word with the signals emanating from the electrodes in the brain. Later, when a word is uttered, one can see the same electrical pattern. This correspondence also means that if one is thinking of a certain word, the computer can pick up the characteristic signals and identify it.
With this technology, it might be possible to have a conversation that takes place entirely telepathically. Also, stroke victims who are totally paralyzed may be able to “talk” through a voice synthesizer that recognizes the brain patterns of individual words.
Not surprisingly, BMI (brain- machine interface) has become a hot field,
with groups around the country making significant breakthroughs. Similar results were obtained by scientists at the University of Utah in 2011. They placed grids, each containing sixteen electrodes, over the facial motor cortex
(which controls movements of the mouth, lips, tongue, and face) and
Wernicke’s area, which processes information about language. The person was then asked to say ten common words, such as “yes” and “no,” “hot” and “cold,” “hungry” and “thirsty,” “hello” and “good- bye,” and “more” and “less.” Using a computer to record the brain signals when these words were uttered, the scientists were able to create a rough one- to- one correspondence between spoken words and computer signals from the brain.
Later, when the patient voiced certain words, they were able to correctly identify each one with an accuracy ranging from 76 percent to 90 percent.
The next step is to use grids with 121 electrodes to get better resolution.
In the future, this procedure may prove useful for individuals suffering from strokes or paralyzing illnesses such as Lou Gehrig’s disease, who would be able to speak using the brain- to- computer technique.
TYPING WITH THE MIND
At the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota, Dr. Jerry Shih has hooked up epileptic patients via ECOG sensors so they can learn how to type with the mind.
The calibration of this device is simple. The patient is first shown a series of letters and is told to focus mentally on each symbol. A computer records the signals emanating from the brain as it scans each letter. As with the other experiments, once this one- to- one dictionary is created, it is then a simple matter for the person to merely think of the letter and for the letter to be typed on a screen, using only the power of the mind.
Dr. Shih, the leader of this project, says that the accuracy of his machine is nearly 100 percent. Dr. Shih believes that he can next create a machine to record images, not just words, that patients conceive in their minds. This could have applications for artists and architects, but the big drawback of
ECOG technology, as we have mentioned, is that it requires opening up patients’ brains.
Meanwhile, EEG typewriters, because they are noninvasive, are entering the marketplace. They are not as accurate or precise as ECOG typewriters,
but they have the advantage that they can be sold over the counter. Guger
Technologies, based in Austria, recently demonstrated an EEG typewriter at a trade show. According to their officials, it takes only ten minutes or so for people to learn how to use this machine, and they can then type at the rate of five to ten words per minute.
Table of Contents
Book I The Mind and Consciousness
1 Unlocking the Mind 13
2 Consciousness-A Physicist's Viewpoint 41
Book II Mind Over Matter
3 Telepathy: A Penny for Your Thoughts 63
4 Telekinesis: Mind Controlling Matter 80
5 Memories and Thoughts Made to Order 104
6 Einstein's Brain and Enhancing Our Intelligence 130
Book III Altered Consciousness
7 In Your Dreams 169
8 Can the Mind Be Controlled? 181
9 Altered States of Consciousness 195
10 The Artificial Mind and Silicon Consciousness 214
11 Reverse Engineering the Brain 250
12 The Future: Mind Beyond Matter 266
13 The Mind as Pure Energy 284
14 The Alien Mind 295
15 Concluding Remarks 317
Appendix: Quantum Consciousness? 329
Suggested Reading 355
Illustration Credits 357
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
EXCELLENT!!! i HAVE BEEN SO INTERESTED IN THE HUMAN BRAIN SINCE I HAD A BENIGN BASEBALL-SIZED TUMOR REMOVED FROM MY LEFT TEMPORAL LOBE AND WAS ATTACHED TO THE PONS AREA OF MY BRAIN. THIS BOOK HAS EXPLAINED SO MUCH ABOUT THE WORKINGS OF THE BRAIN AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES OF TREATING PROBLEMS. ITHE BOOK IS WRITTEN WITH WORDS THAT CAN BE UNDERSTOOD BY AN ORDINARY PERSON WHO IS NOT SCIENTICALLY EDUCATED. A MUST READ FOR ANYONE INTERESTED IN THINKING MORE ABOUT ADVANCES AND UPCOMING WAYS TO COMPREHEND WHAT THE BRAIN IS CAPABLE OF DOING. RECOMMENDED-PHANTOMS IN THE BRAIN & THE TELL-TAIL BRAIN BY V.S. RAMACHADRAN.
I’m a fan of Michio Kaku after seeing him on various Discovery Channel and Science Channel programs so I was really glad to get an advance reading copy of his latest book from Doubleday and NetGalley. The subtitle of the book is “The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance and Empower the Mind”, and as I read Dr. Kaku’s descriptions of ongoing and future research into the human brain I kept running across things that made me say “Wow! I didn’t know they could do that!” The book is, in the jargon of the ‘60’s, “mind blowing”, meant with highest praise. Dr. Kaku summarizes the current state of scientific exploration of our brains and the current understanding of how our minds work in an eminently readable fashion that is understandable by a non-scientist. The book is divided into three sections; Book I: The Mind and Consciousness, Book II: Mind Over Matter, and Book III: Altered Consciousness. In Book I, Kaku gives the reader a brief history of brain research, beginning with Phineas Gage, the railroad worker who had a steel rod driven into his brain by an explosion in 1848. That incident was the first time that doctors could see that damage to the brain could change a person’s personality and led them to think that certain areas of the brain could be traced to certain behaviors. The chapter continues with a brief course in brain physiology which is useful since he refers to the parts of the brain extensively throughout the book and finishes up with a listing of all the ways our brains can be scanned and probed today to allow researchers to see what might be going on when we are performing tasks. Book II is where the mind blowing begins to happen; he recounts research that is aimed at allowing paralyzed people to control a robot hand to pick things up or even an exoskeleton to allow a paralyzed person to walk again. He also discusses the possibility of erasing and creating memories, and looks into whether or not it will be possible for science to make us more intelligent. In Book III Dr. Kaku explores the science fiction area of possible future brain research such as mind control and uploading our minds into artificial bodies so we can live forever, or even transmitting our consciousness across the galaxy by laser beam. Perhaps some of us alive today will live to see some of the things he discusses come to pass. If I don’t I really enjoyed at least finding out what some of the possibilities of the future might be. This book gives me hope that our species will continue to progress and grow. I recommend this book to anyone who is interested in current brain research, science in general or fans of Michio Kaku. He does not disappoint.
I'm only four chapters into the Book. He had me when He talked about the "ID" from my favorite move "Forbidden Planet". A MUST read!
Kaku is very recognized as a result of his frequent TV appearances. I suppose there are more accomplished physicists around, but he is here. I am not hearing arguments against the correctness of his thoughts, so criticism seems petty.
Future of the Mind is an in depth look at the many possible pathways the mind may possibly take and does! Kaki does all this in a way that one can understand without being a scientific genius, The book triggers our excitement while at same time brings about a high sense of anxiety! I believe the book should be read by every one who can read, it is scientific mystery dealing in reality,
Though this book looks a little too far into the future for my taste, the author does stretch the limits of science to explore where brain technology could go in the next century. Science has learned more about the mind since I was born, and there's a long ways to go.
I love this book. It is so informative. As a speech-language pathologist, the knowledge from this book helps me in my profession. Easy to read, informative. The neurological information is superb, up to date. I've also highlighted my favorite parts throughout the book for quick reference. Worth a look if you have a curious mind about the MIND!
Great Book! I also recommend Biocentrism and Hector's Juice!
Amazing work, I will never again look at the human brain the same. The complex universe that sets on our shoulders tells me there is much more that happen chance going on in the creation of humans. This book takes you as deep as current science allows, then goes beyond to many all too real possibilities of the future of the human mind. Unless you are ready and welling to face the reality that humans are the most advanced and unique spies in our known universe because of our mind then this book is not for you.
This book has something to excite all readers. It is filled with amazing facts about the brain and its related research and technology. The scientific material is very readable by all, yet it is still sure to excite die hard mathematicians and physicists. It also raises fantastic questions about how future research and technology could be used by brilliant science fiction writers to create startling books, movies, and other forms of entertainment media that could be enjoyed by billions of people. Overall, it is a brilliant book that has been written in such a way so as to entice a full spectrum of readers from all walks of life.
Michio Kaku does a great job romanticizing and opening the door of physics to the lay man. Throughout the book you will be introduced to many possibilities of the future, but topics are only grazed, and sometimes incomplete ideas are put forth as if they are truth. I thoroughly enjoyed this book for it's great breadth, and I would recommend it to anyone, but readers, do yourself a favor and form your own philosophical ideas.
Enjoy the tour de force on this mind bending brain freeze. Uh, I mean the future of your brain.
Incredible book. It lays it all out. Easy to understand. The plethora of information is compelling to see the wonder and awe of the brain and mind. Those who one star the book do it over politics, which this book is not about. It is a five star all the way. Job well done Dr. Kaku..
This book was a gift to my husband and he has enjoy it very much. Truly his type of reading.
This book gives a clear understanding of the mind, especially the human mind. Dr. Kaku's writing is erudite and comprehensible. I would recommend this book to anyone, over 16, maybe.