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Imperial College Press
Supported Metals in Catalysis

Supported Metals in Catalysis


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With contributions from experts in supported metal catalysis, from both the industry and academia, this book presents the recent developments in characterization and application of supported metals in heterogeneous catalysis. In addition to a thorough and updated coverage of the traditional aspects of heterogeneous catalysis such as preparation, characterization and use in well-established technologies such as Naphtha reforming, the book also includes emerging areas where supported metal catalysis will make significant contributions in future developments, such as hydrogen production and fine chemicals synthesis.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781860944901
Publisher: Imperial College Press
Publication date: 05/06/2005
Series: Catalytic Science Series , #4
Pages: 380
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

1Preparation of Supported Metal Catalysts1
1.2General Description of Preparation Methods3
1.3Case Studies14
1.3.1Impregnation: Preparation of Pt catalysts, the effect of the pre-treatment conditions15
1.3.2Precipitation vs. Impregnation by Ion-exchange: Au precursors, and the effect of the method of preparation and selected support on performance in selective epoxidation of propene over Au/TiO[subscript 2] catalysts19
1.3.3Co-precipitation: Preparation of advanced CaCO[subscript 3] supported Ag catalysts for propylene epoxidation by a novel co-precipitation route23
1.4General Conclusions on the Preparation of Metal Catalysts29
2Theoretical Description of the Metal-oxide Interface by First Principle Methods33
2.2Experimental Models and Techniques on Oxide Surfaces and Metal-oxide Interfaces34
2.3Theoretical Methods39
2.3.1Physical approaches to the metal-oxide interface39
2.3.2Methods of electronic structure calculation42
2.3.3Basis sets and related concepts45
2.3.4Approaches on the dynamics of the systems47
2.4Interaction of Metals with MgO(001)48
2.4.1Isolated atoms on MgO(001)48
2.4.2Metallic films on the MgO(001) surface52
2.4.3Interaction of metal atoms with point defects of the MgO(001) surface53
2.4.4Interaction of metal clusters with perfect and defective MgO(001)56
2.4.5Reactivity of metals on MgO58
2.4.6Other properties: Mobility of metals on oxides60
2.5Interaction of Metals with Other Faces of MgO and Other Alkaline-earth Oxides60
2.6Metal-support Interaction Involving Ionic Oxides with Complex Structures: The Case of the [alpha]-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] (0001) Surface61
2.7Interaction of Metal Atoms and Cluster with Covalent and Semicovalent Oxide Surfaces66
3Characterisation of Supported Metal Catalysts by Spectroscopic Techniques83
3.2Main Properties of Monometallic Systems84
3.3Main Properties of Bimetallic Systems86
3.4In-situ Characterisation90
3.4.1XAFS spectroscopies90
3.4.2Vibrational spectroscopy103
3.4.3Valence and core photoelectron spectroscopies112
3.4.4Other techniques115
4Determination of Dispersion and Supported Metal Crystallite Size123
4.2General Considerations124
4.2.1Physical methods124
4.2.2Chemical methods130
5Recent Progress in Supported Metal Catalysed C1 Chemistry155
5.2Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis158
5.3Methanol Production and Higher Alcohols from Syngas164
5.4Hydrogenation Reactions and Other Possibilities Aimed to Reuse CO[subscript 2]171
5.5Hydroformylation of Olefins with Synthesis Gas174
5.6Catalysed Reactions Involving CH[subscript 4]175
5.7CH[subscript 3]OH to Hydrocarbons and to Other Intermediate Compounds176
6Supported Metal Catalysts in Reforming187
6.1.1Hydrogen pressure191
6.2Structural Requirements of Reforming Reactions192
6.3The Reforming Cycle196
6.4.1Observed effect of parameters198
6.6Improvements to Yields and Life207
6.6.1The use of multimetallic catalysts in S/R208
6.6.2Alloys and clusters209
6.6.3Pt-Re structures209
6.6.5Pt-Ir, the "rational scientific design"213
6.6.6Parallel developments in quality/purity of alumina214
6.6.7Continuous catalyst regeneration214
6.7Monofunctional Zeolite-based Reforming217
6.7.2The technological process219
7Supported Metals in the Production of Hydrogen229
7.2Methane Conversion230
7.2.1Steam methane reforming231 formation233 effects235
7.2.2Methane decomposition236 catalysts237 transition metals238 catalysts238 of the carbon by-product239 investigation243
7.2.3Partial oxidation and dry reforming of methane245 mechanism and heat exchange246 supports251 intermediates253 effects254 and hydrotalcite precursors255
7.3Alcohol Conversion258
7.3.1Methanol258 decomposition258 steam reforming259 oxidation of methanol260 reforming of methanol266
7.3.2Ethanol oxidation267 catalysts270
7.4Conversion of other Hydrocarbon Feeds273
8Supported Metals in Vehicle Emission Control283
8.2Emissions Produced at Stoichiometric Conditions285
8.2.1Classical TWC285
8.2.2Modern TWC289 oxygen buffering oxides289 shift towards the use of palladium292 of Pd by base metals296
8.3Lean-burn Emissions297
8.3.1Oxidation catalysts298
8.3.2Treatment of soot299
8.3.3Catalysts for selective reduction of NO[subscript x] with hydrocarbons301 group metal systems303 metal systems307 approaches313
8.4Mixed Oscillating Emissions314
8.4.1NO[subscript x] Storage and reduction catalysts314
9Catalysis for Fine Chemicals Manufacture327
9.2Selective Hydrogenation over Supported Metal Catalysts328
9.2.1The hydrogenation of buta-1,3-diene over non-modified metal catalysts328
9.2.2The hydrogenation of buta-1,3-diene over modified metal catalysts332
9.2.3The hydrogenation of [alpha], [beta]-unsaturated aldehydes over non-modified metal catalysts333
9.2.4The hydrogenation of [alpha], [beta]-unsaturated aldehydes over modified metal catalysts334
9.3Selective Oxidation337
9.3.1Supported platinum-group metals337
9.3.2Supported gold and silver339
9.3.3Catalyst deactivation341
9.4Enantioselective Reactions342
9.4.1Enantioselective hydrogenation of activated ketones over supported Platinum343
9.4.2Enantioselective hydrogenation over other supported metals351

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