Antibiotics are powerful drugs that can prevent and treat infections, but they are becoming less effective as a result of drug resistance. Resistance develops because the bacteria that antibiotics target can evolve ways to defend themselves against these drugs. When antibiotics fail, there is very little else to prevent an infection from spreading.
Unnecessary use of antibiotics in both humans and animals accelerates the evolution of drug-resistant bacteria, with potentially catastrophic personal and global consequences. Our best defenses against infectious disease could cease to work, surgical procedures would become deadly, and we might return to a world where even small cuts are life-threatening. The problem of drug resistance already kills over one million people across the world every year and has huge economic costs. Without action, this problem will become significantly worse.
Following from their work on the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance, William Hall, Anthony McDonnell, and Jim O’Neill outline the major systematic failures that have led to this growing crisis. They also provide a set of solutions to tackle these global issues that governments, industry, and public health specialists can adopt. In addition to personal behavioral modifications, such as better handwashing regimens, Superbugs argues for mounting an offense against this threat through agricultural policy changes, an industrial research stimulus, and other broad-scale economic and social incentives.
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About the Author
William Hall, a public policy professional, served as Senior Policy Advisor for the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance.
Anthony McDonnell is Senior Health Economist, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, and was Head of Economic Research for the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance.
Jim O’Neill, an internationally recognized economist, served as Chair of the Review on Antimicrobial Resistance.
Table of Contents
Foreword Sally Davies vii
Part I The Problem of Drug Resistance
Chapter 1 When a Scratch Could Kill 9
Chapter 2 The Rise of Resistance 30
Chapter 3 Failures in Tackling Drug-Resistant Infections 54
Part II Solutions to Counter Antimicrobial Resistance
Chapter 4 Incentives for New Drug Development 85
Chapter 5 Prevention Is Better than Cure 116
Chapter 6 Reducing Unnecessary Use of Antibiotics in Humans 145
Chapter 7 Agriculture and the Environment 167
Chapter 8 Next Steps 193