Strategic Integrated Marketing Communications / Edition 2 available in Paperback
- An essential book for today's marketer now that integrated marketing communications form a critical success factor in building strong brands and strong companies
- This new edition is still the only textbook on the market to deal with all aspects of IMC from a strategic perspective
- Corporate image, identity and reputation have never been more important and this book unlocks the key factors in achieving and enhancing this
Integrated Marketing Communications is not just about utilizing different communication options in your marketing campaign; it is about planning in a systematic way to determine the most effective and consistent message for your target audience. As such, it depends upon identifying the best positioning, generating positive brand attitude, a consistent reinforcement of the brand's message through IMC channels, and ensuring that all marketing communication supports the company's overall identity, image, and reputation. This textbook is a roadmap to achieving this, thoroughly updated to reflect the dynamic changes in the area since the first edition was published.
New to this edition:
- New sections on social media and now to integrate them into your marketing function
- New chapter on message development and an enhanced chapter on the IMC plan
- Robust pedagogy to help reinforce learning and memory
- Enhanced teaching materials online to help lecturers prepare their courses
- Brand new real-life case study vignettes
|Publisher:||Taylor & Francis|
|Product dimensions:||6.20(w) x 9.20(h) x 0.80(d)|
About the Author
Dr Larry Percy is Professor of marketing at the Copenhagen Business School as well as a marketing and communications consultant with over 40 years’ experience. Dr Percy has previously held posts at University of Pittsburgh's Katz Graduate School of Business, the University of Oxford, Luiss Business School in Rome, and the Stockholm School of Economics. He has over 90 publications to his name, including 12 books, and has served on the editorial board of a number of academic journals
Table of Contents
Section I: Introduction to IMC 1.Overview of IMC 2.Brands and IMC 3.Companies and IMC Section II: Components of IMC 4.Traditional Advertising 5.Traditional Promotion 6.Non-Traditional Media Section III: IMC Messages 7.Message Processing 8.Message Development 9.Creative Execution Section IV: The IMC Plan 10.Planning Considerations 11.The IMC Planning Process 12.Finalizing and Implementing the IMC Plan
Chapter 1: Overview of IMC
This chapter begins with a look at various definitions of IMC, and while they may differ in particulars, they all basically frame IMC as a planning process. We see IMC as fundamentally all about planning in order to deliver a consistent message across any number of delivery media. However, there is no settled way in which IMC is managed, and there are a number of barriers to effective implementation which must be overcome. It is argued that strategic planning is required for effective IMC, and a 5-step strategic planning process is introduced.
Chapter 2: Brands and IMC
Brand meaning builds over time, largely as a function of marketing communication. It might well be argued that brands could not exist without it, and that it is IMC that offers the manager the ability to inform brand meaning. The first step in building strong brand meaning is effective positioning, correctly identifying the link between the brand and category need, and selecting the appropriate benefit for increasing positive brand attitude. All of this must take into account any brand portfolio considerations and branding strategy.
Chapter 3: Companies and IMC
IMC has an important role in strengthening companies, especially companies as brands. This role is primarily with companies as a corporation, where its identity and image is concerned with external audiences, rather than as an organization where the concern is internal. Corporate identity, image, and reputation are all mediated by IMC, establishing corporate meaning, is what is now thought of as a corporate brand. In a very real sense IMC will help build and manage a corporate brand equity as well as individual brand equities.
Chapter 4: Traditional Advertising
The key to understanding the role of traditional advertising in IMC is the important distinction between advertising-like messages and promotion-like messages. With advertising-like messages the primary communication objectives are brand awareness and brand attitude. With promotion-like messages, while addressing brand awareness and attitude, the primary objective is an immediate brand purchase or action intention. There are four basic types of advertising: consumer-oriented brand advertising, retail advertising (where channels marketing may be involved), business-to-business advertising, and corporate advertising. Given the importance of brand awareness and attitude strategy, it is an integral part of IMC planning. This includes attention to the distinction between recognition and recall awareness, and understanding the target audiences’ level of involvement with the purchase decision and the underlying motivation driving that decision. This relationship is summarized by the Rossiter-Percy Grid.
Chapter 5: Traditional Promotion
The primary objective of traditional promotion is to initiate immediate action, and while not necessary, this usually involves an incentive of some kind. Given its objective, in terms of IMC strategy promotion should only be used as a short-term tactic, carefully integrated over time in relation to the target audiences’ decision process. There are three basic types of promotion: consumer, retail, and trade. The basic consumer incentive promotions are: coupons, samples, refunds, and rebates, loyalty programs and loading devices, premiums, and sweepstakes, games and contests. Most of these have counterparts in trade and retail promotions. Managers must carefully plan for the likely effect of a promotion because if it is too successful the unexpected increase in the cost of the promotion can have a serious negative impact on the marketing budget.
Chapter 6: Non-traditional Media
There are many alternative ways of delivering IMC, and managers are looking more and more to non-traditional ways of delivering their message. The fastest growing one is what is known as 'new media', especially various applications of the Internet and mobile. But along with this growth has come increasing concerns over privacy and pressure by governments to tax Internet services. Other alternative ways of delivering IMC include such things as sponsorships and events, product placement packaging, trade shows and fairs, public relations, and (often overlooked) personal selling. Strengths and weaknesses of these non-traditional media are discussed.
Chapter 7: Message Processing
It is important for managers to understand what is involved in the processing of marketing communications in order to better plan effective IMC campaigns. Information is processed hierarchically, as described by McGuire's Information Processing Paradigm, and involves compounding probabilities. For IMC planning this means that a consumer response sequence must occur where exposure is followed by processing the message in order to achieve a desired communication effect leading to target audience action. There are four key elements involved in the processing of the message: attention, learning, acceptance (in high involving cases), all mediated by emotion. This requires conscious attention, contrary to what some have argued. While unconscious processing may occur, neurologically any resulting implicit memories cannot influence attitude or behaviour.
Chapter 8: Message Development
The procedure for developing effective messages for an IMC campaign is the same regardless of the media used to deliver the message. It begins with a thorough understanding of the communication strategy, specifically the positioning and communication objective. From this a creative brief is developed outlining what is needed for the creation and execution of the message. It is not until a creative brief is agreed upon that work can begin on coming up with creative ideas. One tool helpful in stimulating creative ideas is the remote conveyor model. Once the creative ideas are worked up into executions, these executions must be pre-tested to ensure that the message is processed and meets the objectives outlined in the creative brief.
Chapter 9: Creative Execution
Based upon the work of psychologists studying psycholinguistics and visual imagery a number of creative tactics are discussed, creative tactics aimed at helping gain and hold attention as well as maximize learning. These involve how written words and pictures can be used in order to increase the likelihood a message will be successfully processed. An important consideration in the creative execution of IMC is that every component of a campaign presents a consistent 'look and feel', and that this consistency is retained over time. Campaigns will of course evolve, but the underlying 'sense' and identity should remain. And in addition to these general considerations, there are specific creative tactics required for different brand awareness and brand attitude strategies.
Chapter 10: Planning Considerations
The IMC plan is built upon the marketing plan because it is the job of the IMC campaign to support and facilitate the overall marketing objectives. Both advertising and promotion are considered, and additionally the manager may wish to consider direct marketing. Direct marketing, like promotions, is looking for an immediate response, but it is database driven. How advertising and promotion are used will depend upon various market characteristics, as well as their over unique strengths and weaknesses. The manager will want to consider how to optimize their use together in order to create a 'ratchet' effect where short-term gains from promotion are retained and built upon for more long-term effects through advertising.
Chapter 11: The IMC Planning Process
The IMC planning process begins with target audience selection, which will be informed by the marketing plan. Once selected it is important to gain an understanding of how they go about making purchase or other action decisions. The Behavioural Sequence Model provides a good way of identifying the stages of the decision process and whom and what is involved at each stage. This understanding leads to message development, beginning with how to best position the brand in its marketing communication. A key part of the positioning is the selection of an appropriate benefit upon which to base the message. Next, the communication objectives must be set, and specifically the brand awareness and attitude strategies to meet those objectives. The final step in the IMC planning process is to identify media options that are consistent with the processing requirements of the communication objectives and strategy.
Chapter 12: Finalizing and Implementing the IMC Plan
The IMC plan follows from the planning process. In finalizing the plan it helps to consider the key elements in a way the manager can access all of the options available. An IMC planning worksheet is introduced where for each important touch point in the decision process the target audience and communication objectives associated with specific communication tasks along with potential media options, are summarized. To implement the plan requires the manager to decide which parts of the plan are essential, and what trade-offs should be made among the remaining communication tasks outlined in the plan in order to stay within budget. Specific primary and secondary media are chosen, and the IMC program implemented. The last step is to track the response to the campaign in the market.