An epic saga of love and war, Shadow of the Swords tells the story of the Crusades—from the Muslim perspective.
Saladin, a Muslim sultan, finds himself pitted against King Richard the Lionheart as Islam and Christianity clash against each other, launching a conflict that still echoes today.
In the midst of a brutal and unforgiving war, Saladin finds forbidden love in the arms of Miriam, a beautiful Jewish girl with a tragic past. But when King Richard captures Miriam, the two most powerful men on Earth must face each other in a personal battle that will determine the future of the woman they both love—and of all civilization.
Richly imagined, deftly plotted, and highly entertaining, Shadow of the Swords is a remarkable story that will stay with readers long after the final page has been turned.
|Publisher:||Washington Square Press|
|Product dimensions:||5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.10(d)|
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Shadow of the SwordsAn Epic Novel of the Crusades
By Kamran Pasha
Washington Square PressCopyright © 2010 Kamran Pasha
All right reserved.
1 The Horns of Hattin—AD 1187
It is said that God favors irony. Perhaps that is why His city, named for peace, has known only war and death.”
The rabbi's father had said that to him once, when he was a restless youth and a virgin. He had changed much in the untold years that had passed since then. His desire for adventure had been supplanted by a desperate longing for serenity. His wedding night was a distant but still tender memory. The old man had learned that much of what he had believed in the morning of his life was incomplete at best. False, at worst. Yet these words had proven true, time and again. The God of irony was an accurate description of the ineffable, unpredictable Being from whom the cosmos derived its essence. Perhaps it was not fair to call God an outright trickster, but He undoubtedly had a sense of humor.
Like his people, the old man was a wanderer. He had sought the Divine Countenance in the shadowed gardens of Cordova. His weary feet had traced the Queen of Sheba's paths through the African desert. His gray eyes had filled with tears before the Pyramids, which were ancient even when Moses played in their shadow. Yet he knew from his journeys that all paths returned here, to the navel of the world. To the Holy Land. To Jerusalem.
Jerusalem had been the prize of many conquerors, few who had been friends to the Jews. His people were banished and scattered to the winds, yet they never forgot the city of David. It beckoned them in their souls, their dreams.
Then the sons of Ishmael arose from the desert to claim their share in the legacy of Abraham. And, for a time, there was peace and the sons of Isaac began to return home.
So it was, until the Franks arrived on the horizon. Poor, illiterate, filled with hate. They sought to regain Jerusalem in the name of their Christ. The rabbi had read the sayings of this Jesus of Nazareth and had not found in them anything to explain the horror of what they did.
The Franks slaughtered the old and the weak. The women. The little ones. They killed the Muslims as infidels, and then they killed the other Christians as heretics. They gathered all the Jews who remained and locked them in the main synagogue. Then they set it on fire.
In the end, the lamentations ceased, for there were none left to lament.
Frankish historians would later boast that blood ran down the streets of Jerusalem up to the ankles of their armored soldiers. But the slaughter of tens of thousands in the Holy City was the least of their crimes. In the once pristine town of Ma'arra, emerald with vineyards and fields and olives, an evil beyond evil rose from the very bowels of Hell. The rabbi had vomited after he read the full account of Albert of Aix, the Frankish chronicler who witnessed and glorified the greatest victory of Satan over the hearts of men. For in Ma'arra, the Crusaders not only massacred the population. They cannibalized their victims. Men and women cooked in clay pots. Their children impaled on wooden spits and grilled alive.
The rabbi had once thought that these stories were the typical exaggerations of warmongers and madmen, much like the bloody tales of Joshua's conquest of Palestine in the Holy Book. Ballads of fury meant to debase the humanity of the opponent, not actual accounts of historical events. But he had come to learn that the Franks were a literal bunch, not given to poetry or figures of speech.
Like his people, the rabbi was known by many names. To the Arabs and his brothers among the Sephardim, he answered to Sheikh Musa ibn Maymun, chief rabbi of Cairo and personal physician of the Sultan. The pale-faced Ashkenazim knew him only from his detailed and eloquent writings on matters of law and theology, which had spread through the glorious Spanish highlands into the darkness that was known as Europe. They called him Rebbe Moshe Ben Maimon in the tongue of their forefathers. The most enthusiastic of his followers revered him as “The Rambam,” although he did not consider himself worthy of any special devotion.
And the Frankish barbarians, at least the few who could read and write, referred to him as Maimonides. They also called him Christ-killer and a few other choice epithets that were reserved for his people as a whole, but he tried not to take that too personally. They were ignorant primitives, after all.
Maimonides walked slowly toward the pavilion of the Sultan, rustling his hand through his shaggy beard, as he often did when he was lost deep in thought. His body was not tired, but a force greater than fatigue burdened his soul. The oppressive, crushing weight of history. He did not know if he would live beyond the day and he wanted to treasure every breath as if it were his last. But the stench of torches and dung, both human and animal, poisoned the air. Maimonides would have laughed, had his sense of humor survived the horror of war.
The rabbi's mind asked a thousand questions of his Lord. O God of irony, do You find pleasure in even the subtlest twists of fortune? That a peace-loving scholar should meet his doom caught in the bloody swath of a Crusader's blade—is that not enough to tickle You? Is it truly necessary that his final memories should be forever marred by the reek of disease and defecation, the scent of the battlefield?
But his God, as usual, did not reply.
Maimonides turned to watch the preparations for battle. Turbaned Arab soldiers, working alongside fair-skinned Kurdish horsemen and statuesque Nubian warriors, milled like ants through the battle camp. Their bonds of communal purpose were intensified by an urgent energy that seemed to crackle through the air. The sensation was so real that Maimonides felt the hair on the back of his hands rising. Such was the power of destiny. These men knew that they were standing at the doorway of history. Regardless of whether they lived or died, their actions would be forever inscribed in the ledger of time. Their deeds would be weighed on the judgment scales of a thousand generations yet to come.
The old man continued on his way, navigating through a maze of mules and Arabian steeds, as well as the occasional goat that managed to escape the butcher's pen. He passed a line of camels, some carrying razor-tipped arrows from Damascus to resupply the army, while others brought precious water from Lake Tiberias to the north. His escorts on the long journey from Cairo had said that the jihad would be won or lost on water. The Sultan had formulated a strategy that relied on cutting off the Franks from their water supplies just long enough to weaken them before the onslaught of the main forces.
The heavily armored warriors unloading the camels ignored the aging physician. They were filled with the fire of youth and paid little thought to those walking down the final paths of life. They were under the spell of the God of irony, of course, as Maimonides knew that he would probably outlive most of these boastful and confident lads. He wondered how many of them would be buried tomorrow under the twin hills known as the Horns of Hattin. He wondered whether there would be anyone left to bury them.
Maimonides reached the Sultan's pavilion and nodded to the two Egyptians who stood before its entrance brandishing massive scimitars. The guards, twin brothers with equally cruel eyes and stony jaws, stepped aside. They did not particularly like the Jew, but he held the confidence of the Sultan. Maimonides knew that only a handful of men had access to the ruler's presence, and fewer still could call him a friend. It had taken the rabbi years of loyal service to earn the Sultan's trust, a journey that had begun when he had been summoned to the Citadel in Cairo to cure its newly installed conqueror of a painful fever. Maimonides often pondered the strange twists and turns of destiny that had transformed him from a modest physician to an influential adviser of a king.
The rabbi entered the tent. He marveled again at its simplicity. There was little to distinguish the pavilion from the humble dwellings of the Egyptian foot soldiers. No grand trophies or ornaments of gold. No plush carpets imported from Isfahan to cover the dry Hattin earth. Just a cabin made of striped green linen with the eagle flag of the Sultan flapping from a makeshift pole at the entrance. The Sultan eschewed the normal displays of power. Maimonides knew that this was one of the many reasons he held the undivided loyalty of his men. He was one of them in life and, perhaps by tonight, in death.
Inside the royal tent, the rabbi found his master poring over maps of the surrounding countryside. The Sultan was a brilliant military tactician whose secret lay in his attention to detail. A general must know every twist of terrain, every hill, every gulley of the battlefield better than he knows the contours of his wife's body, the Sultan had said once. In war, there was no room for error. One mistake could set back the advance of an army, could thwart the destiny of an entire civilization, as the Arab blunder at Tours 450 years before had halted the Islamic expansion into Europe. The Sultan lived in the unforgiving glare of history and could not afford the luxury of even the slightest mistake.
Maimonides stood at attention before the Sultan, careful not to interrupt his concentration. His master ran his hand across the worn parchment one last time before glancing up at his adviser. His tanned brow had been creased in thought, his face a mask of iron focus, but his dark eyes now lit up with genuine warmth.
Sultan Salah al-Din ibn Ayyub, known to the Franks as Saladin, was a man like no other. Like King David, Saladin inspired in his followers a sense that they were in the presence of something larger than life, as if a spark of the Divine had flashed from heaven and lit a fire that consumed the hearts of men. Saladin was more than a leader. He was a catalyst. Like Alexander and Caesar before him, Saladin had come to turn the world upside down with the singular force of his will.
The Sultan stepped forward and embraced the rabbi, kissing his cheeks. Maimonides was struck again by how young he appeared. No, not young. Ageless. His beard was midnight black, without a hint of gray, but his brown eyes were ancient pools that shone with an ineffable sadness. The years of war with the Franks had made Saladin a walking enigma. His body seemed to grow younger with time, but his eyes much older. It was as if each victory against the Crusader menace reinvigorated his external form yet drained his soul.
“Peace be upon you, old friend! When did you arrive?” The Sultan led the rabbi to a silk cushion and bade him sit. Saladin's robes, dun-colored like his beloved desert, rippled with the natural grace of his movements. The Sultan walked like a tiger, every step conveying an aura of spontaneous ease, but brimming with the barely suppressed tension of a predator.
“The weapons caravan from Cairo just pulled in, sayyidi,” the rabbi said. “We were delayed due to a Frankish ambush.” Maimonides gratefully accepted a silver chalice filled with chilled water from the Caucasus.
Saladin's face darkened.
“Were you hurt?” he asked, his eyes narrowing with concern and a hint of quiet anger.
“I am fine, praise God,” Maimonides replied. “It was a small band that has been raiding the Sinai since winter. Your men dispatched them easily.”
“I will get the details from the captain-at-arms later,” he said. “My heart is glad that you are here. We will need the skilled hand of a physician when the battle is over.” The Sultan stood up and returned to the map. Maimonides set aside the chalice and followed him. Saladin pointed to the parchment, which was marked with mysterious symbols. The Sultan never remembered, of course, that military plans were as unintelligible as hieroglyphics to the rabbi, but Maimonides played along, feigning comprehension as his master's voice rose with excitement.
“The Frankish army has gathered en masse at Hattin,” he said. “Our spies claim that the entire Jerusalem legion has joined the coastal forces in a bid to crush our army.”
“I am not a military tactician, sayyidi, but that does not strike me as a wise move on their part,” the rabbi said. “Jerusalem is the true goal of the jihad, as the Franks assuredly know. Should our forces break through their ranks, the city will be open for the taking. They must be very confident.”
Saladin laughed, his eyes suddenly youthful with mirth.
“They are not confident, only brash,” he said. “I have no doubt that this suicidal tactic was devised by the great Reginald himself.”
Maimonides stiffened at the name of the Frankish noble who had terrorized the Holy Land for years. Reginald of Kerak was a true barbarian whose bloody exploits embarrassed even the most ruthless Franks. The rabbi's sister Rachel and her family had the misfortune of being caught by Reginald's men thirteen years before in a raid on a trading caravan near Ascalon in the Sinai. Only Rachel's young daughter Miriam escaped alive and hid in the desert before she was found by a kindly Bedouin who helped her return to Cairo.
Miriam had never spoken of what happened during the ambush, or how she managed to survive. It was enough for a heartbroken Maimonides to know that Rachel and her husband, Yehuda, had perished in the brutal attack. Maimonides had never truly known hate until he saw Miriam after the raid. Her sparkling green eyes dead, her laughter quenched. The war ceased to be a matter of distant gossip in that moment. Driving the Franks into the sea became the goal of his life, not just the empty slogan of the average patriot, safely lounging on a feathered couch while others fought on his behalf. Maimonides wondered how many men in Saladin's army were here for similar reasons. To avenge a personal atrocity committed by the Crusaders. To avenge themselves against Reginald of Kerak.
Saladin noticed the crack in his friend's composure and he touched his shoulder sympathetically.
“I promised Allah that I will show the Franks mercy if He grants us victory today,” he said. “But I made no such promise on Reginald's behalf.”
“As a man of God, I cannot preach revenge,” Maimonides said, a tiny hint of regret in his voice.
“Leave revenge to the warriors,” Saladin said. “I would like to think that there are at least a few men unsullied by blood in this world.”
The Sultan was interrupted by the arrival of his brother, al-Adil. Larger in size than Saladin, with a wild shock of almost crimson hair and pitch-black eyes, he was brave and forceful like his kin, but did not share the Sultan's knack for diplomacy. Al-Adil entered Saladin's chamber and eyed Maimonides suspiciously. The rabbi was always a little uncomfortable around the flame-haired giant. He did not know why Saladin's brother disliked him so much. At times he thought it was because he was a Jew. But the sons of Ayyub had been raised to follow the best of their prophet's tradition and respect the People of the Book. Al-Adil had always treated other Jews with courtesy, but for whatever reason, he chose not to extend it to the chief rabbi himself.
Saladin turned to his brother.
Al-Adil hesitated, glancing at Maimonides as if considering whether the old man should be made privy to councils of war, before continuing.
“The Knights Templar are gathering into formation at the Frankish camp. Our archers are preparing for the charge.”
“Then the trumpet of Allah has called us to destiny.”
He gestured to Maimonides to follow him as he stepped outside the tent, his scowling brother in tow.
A hush fell on the camp as the Sultan emerged. His arrival signaled the beginning of the end. For nearly ninety years, the Muslim armies had been trapped in a losing battle against the Frankish invaders. They had suffered grievous losses and humiliations, none greater than the occupation of Jerusalem and the desecration of the Al-Aqsa mosque. Their tribal pettiness and fratricidal wars had made the dream of victory over the barbarians seem like a desert mirage—seductively inviting, always appearing to be within grasp, but fleeting and illusory at its core. Until today.
Saladin had achieved the impossible. He had united the warring kingdoms of Egypt and Syria after a century of chaos. The Crusaders were finally hemmed in, trapped by the sea and their own shortsighted infighting. And now the unified Muslim armies stood with a dagger poised at the heart of the Frankish kingdom. The Battle of Hattin would determine the future of the Holy Land and the destiny of the Arab people. The soldiers knew that victory today meant triumph over the forces of barbarism and ignorance that threatened to plunge the civilized world back into the illiterate darkness that still covered Europe. If Saladin were defeated today, it would leave Damascus and Cairo open to the Crusader invasion, and the caliphate would vanish into the sewers of history.
That was why he was here, supervising the final battle himself. Saladin trusted his commanders, military geniuses such as the Egyptian general Keukburi and the Sultan's courageous nephew Taqi al-Din. But the outcome of this conflict, for good or ill, would rest solely upon Saladin's shoulders in the annals of history. So when word had come that the Franks, desperate for water to replenish their dwindling supplies, were on the move toward the wells of Hattin, Saladin had left behind the safety of his encampment at Kafr Sabt, halfway between Tiberias and the Crusader stronghold at Saffuriyah, to take personal charge over the impending battle.
Saladin gazed with pride at his men as he approached the forward line of defense. The archers on horseback, dressed in silk tunics over cuirasses, were poised like Greek statues of Artemis, ready for the hunt. The regiment stood proudly behind red and jasmine standards. Banners bearing roses and birds fluttered in the wind around them
The Sultan pulled out a small viewing lens and gazed across the fields of Hattin. He squinted and peered through the glass toward the Crusader encampment below. Saladin's strategy had successfully divided the Frankish army, which had been organized into three columns. Raymond of Tripoli led the forward regiment, which was currently busy defending itself from Taqi al-Din's ambush on the road to Tiberias. Saladin had had many dealings with Raymond over the years and had come to respect him. Unlike most of his compatriots, the nobleman was a man of honor who had sought a lasting peace between their peoples. But Raymond had been thwarted at all turns by hate-filled fanatics like Reginald and was now compelled through a sense of duty to participate in this destructive war. Saladin had once told Maimonides that he would regret it deeply should he be forced to slay Raymond on the battlefield. But there was no doubt in the rabbi's mind that the Sultan would do what needed to be done.
The middle contingent of the Crusader army, which confronted them below, was led by Reginald himself, the brutish thug whom Saladin had vowed to kill with his own hands. Maimonides knew that Reginald had personally led the attack that had resulted in his sister's death. As a doctor, he abhorred the taking of any human life. But the rabbi had long before concluded that Reginald had left behind the hallowed status of a human being with his unbridled savagery.
The rear contingent of the Crusader army was led by Balian of Ibelin and contained the heaviest concentration of the fanatical Knights Templar and Hospitallers. Maimonides knew these men would fight to the death and would never surrender, and he uttered a silent prayer of thanks that the knights had been substantially weakened as a result of lack of water and the never-ending skirmishes that Saladin's men inflicted on the Frankish army. The fools were so busy swatting the minor attacks the Muslims were provoking from the rear that they could provide little support to Reginald's central column. Those forces now found themselves alone, facing the full mass of the Muslim army at Hattin. The divided Crusader regiments had unwittingly walked into Saladin's trap.
Maimonides watched his master as he scanned the distant Crusader camp. The Sultan's eyebrows rose as he focused on a crimson pavilion at the center of the base. A blue standard bearing an embroidered golden cross flew arrogantly in the wind.
“So it has come to this at last. King Guy himself graces us with his presence,” he said, with a trace of wonder.
Maimonides turned to the Sultan, startled. This was unexpected. “I'm surprised that cur would find the courage to step outside the gates of Jerusalem.”
Al-Adil unsheathed his scimitar and held it high, a towering symbol of power and defiance.
“I shall take great pleasure in separating Guy's head from his shoulders,” he said. “Unless you would prefer the honor yourself, brother.”
Saladin smiled, accustomed to al-Adil's outbursts.
“It is not fitting for kings to tear each other apart like rabid dogs,” the Sultan said.
Al-Adil snorted. His was a world of blood and iron that had little place for idealism.
“They will not show you such mercy should their knights come upon you in battle,” he said.
“That is why we are better than them, my brother,” Saladin reminded him. “Our compassion is our greatest weapon. With it we slay the resistance in a man's heart and quell his hate. When you defeat the rancor, you have replaced an enemy with an ally.”
Al-Adil turned away, shaking his head, but Maimonides smiled. Saladin was a man unlike any the rabbi had met in his life. A Muslim who bowed his head to Mecca, he nonetheless embodied the highest teachings of the Talmud. If such men led every nation, perhaps the Messiah would hasten.
The rabbi peered across the desolate field to the Crusader camp in the distance. Regardless of the course that the battle took, he knew that the end was nigh. He said a silent prayer for the men who would lose their lives in the next few hours. Maimonides forced himself to include a prayer for those among the Frankish enemy destined to die as well, but his heart was not in it.
© 2010 Kamran Pasha
Excerpted from Shadow of the Swords by Kamran Pasha Copyright © 2010 by Kamran Pasha. Excerpted by permission.
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Reading Group Guide
This reading group guide for Shadow of the Swords includes an introduction, discussion questions, ideas for enhancing your book club, and a Q&A with author Kamran Pasha. The suggested questions are intended to help your reading group find new and interesting angles and topics for your discussion. We hope that these ideas will enrich your conversation and increase your enjoyment of the book.
In this sweeping historical novel, Kamran Pasha brings to life the Third Crusade and the epic battle between Richard the Lionheart, King of England, and the Muslim Sultan, Saladin. Just when Saladin has finally taken Jerusalem for the Muslims and believes a time of peace is setting in, King Richard is departing from England to regain the Holy City for Christianity. Another bloody war is launched in the name of God, as these two men fight for the honor and glory of their faiths and the love of one beautiful Jewess. In this deeply moving and thought-provoking novel, Pasha recreates some of the most earth-shattering moments in history that still impact us today.
1. Many examples of leadership are presented throughout the book: Saladin, King Guy, King Henry, Richard, Conrad. Discuss the leadership style of each of these characters. Is it better to be feared than loved? What makes each of these rulers successful or not?
2. Sir William muses that love is “the antidote to power” (p. 137). He believes that if more of his people were capable of reading the Bible and interpreting Christ’s teachings for themselves, they would not be so eager to pursue a holy war. Reread this passage and discuss whether or not you agree with William. Could his thoughts also imply that knowledge is an antidote to power?
3. Miriam often serves to expose the weaknesses and human nature of the male protagonists. What do her relationships with Saladin and Richard show us about each of these men?
4. While the Muslims and Christians fight for Jerusalem, Maimonides reminds us that the Holy City had once belonged to the Jews; that “his people had once ruled this land where he now stood, from the emerald sea to the sparkling waters of the Jordan, and beyond.” Does Saladin have any more right to the Holy City than Richard does?
5. Many references are made throughout the book to God’s love of irony. How does irony play a role in the book and in the basic notion of the Crusades?
6. “Such was the nature of all men—they would move heaven and earth to protect their loved ones, but would rarely raise a finger to save a stranger, even if they were bound by all the laws of God and men” (p. 348). How is this notion supported in the book? Do you believe this is true of human nature?
7. The Sultana is a jealous, conniving, and manipulative character. Do you think her death was justified? Why do you think her maid was put to death as well?
8. Discuss Maimonides’ act of revenge. Was it out of character? Can you sympathize with him? Do you think he regrets his decision when everything is said and done?
9. William is both a loyal friend to Richard and an admirer of Saladin. Why do you think he remains so loyal to Richard when it is clear that he has disagreed with this war all along? How is it possible for William and Saladin to be both friends and enemies at the same time?
10. What symbolism do you interpret from Richard’s dream in which Saladin’s face appears on the crucified body of Christ, Miriam is the Virgin Mary, and Richard himself drives a spear into the body on the cross?
11. It might be said that war was both more savage and more civilized during the Crusades than it is today. In what ways is this demonstrated in the novel? Do you agree with this statement?
12. Reread Saladin’s speech on page 465. How does this put the jihad in perspective? In what ways does it move you?
Enhance Your Book Club
1. What would it really have been like for a woman during the time of the Crusades? Find out at www.crusades-encyclopedia.com/womenandthecrusades.html.
2. Islam, Judaism, and Christianity are the three main forms of the Abrahamic religions. To learn more about the similarities and differences among these three faiths, visit www.spiritus-temporis.com/abrahamic-religion/.
A Conversation with Kamran Pasha
Q. Have you always been interested in the Crusades? What inspired you to write a book about this particular moment in history? How did you decide where to begin your story and where to end it?
A: I have always been interested in the subjects of religion and history, and the Crusades represent one of the most important periods historically in the relationship between Christianity and Islam. Indeed, the conflict between these two civilizations that began when Pope Urban called the First Crusade in 1095 C.E. arguably continues to this day, with extremists in both cultures seeking to continue the deadly feud between these religions that was ignited almost a thousand years ago. The horrific events of September 11, 2001 served as the specific catalyst for me to write this story. The terror attacks on that day had a deep impact on my soul as a Muslim and as an American. Like my fellow Americans, I felt as if a dagger had been struck in my heart when I watched the World Trade Center come crashing down in a cloud of fire and death. But as a Muslim, I had the added burden of knowing that evil men who claimed to be following my faith had done these acts. As September 11 soon gave way to America’s wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, it became clear that we were entering a new period in this age-old conflict between the West and the Muslim world. And I wanted to write a story that examined the ancient roots of animosity between these two cultures.
I specifically chose to write about the Third Crusade for a variety of reasons. First, it truly was an epic tale in which the protagonists were some of the most important people in world history. Both Richard the Lionheart and Saladin remain archetypal heroes of their respective civilizations, and this moment where both men clashed on the battlefield is truly a remarkable convergence of history. But more importantly, the Third Crusade represents in my view the closest analogy to the events of today, with one crucial difference—the “heroes” and the “villains” are reversed. The Crusaders were the terrorists of their time, slaughtering innocents, including women and children, without remorse, and Saladin was considered by both sides to be a man of great honor and civility. This was a time when Islam was the dominant world civilization, advanced in every area of science, art, and culture, while the Christian West had slipped into illiteracy, feudalism, and barbarity. The destructive social problems in Europe led to violence and the use of terror by Christians to regain their lost dominance. In my view, this is exactly parallel to what is happening in parts of the Muslim world today, a thousand years later. Al-Qaeda and its sympathizers seek to reverse the flow of history in which the West has become dominant and the Muslim world feels militarily and culturally besieged by outsiders. Like the Crusaders, the Muslim extremists are resorting to barbarism and brutality to fight a war they feel they cannot win any other way. But as a practicing Muslim myself, I know that Al-Qaeda and its supporters violate the fundamental precepts of Islam and I oppose them with all my being. In some ways, the character I personally feel most connection to in this novel is that of the Christian knight William, who sees some of his fellow believers acting in ways that violate his faith and must make a moral stand against extremists among his own people. That is why I wrote this novel, and I hope it will open many eyes among people of all faiths.
Q. Which of your main characters are completely fictitious? How do you manage to seamlessly blend fact and fiction?
A: There are several important characters that are the product of my imagination. Miriam is fictitious, as is Sir William Chinon, although the latter is based loosely on William Marshal, an important knight who lived during Richard’s time. These characters were created in order to voice important perspectives in the narrative. Miriam is the heroine of the story and she serves to give a woman’s point of view of the war as well as a Jewish perspective on both Christian and Muslim actions. She is the necessary observer who is distinct from all the principals in terms of gender as well as faith, and in many ways Miriam serves as the reader’s guide into this unfamiliar world. Sir William is an important character because he represents what I believe is the true face of Christianity, a religion like Islam that at its best is about love, humility, and service. Saladin amply reflected those values from the Muslim side, but regrettably Richard in my view is not a noble exemplar of the Christian faith, and so I created a character to fulfill that role. In writing this novel as a Muslim, it was very important for me to avoid the impression that the actions of the Crusaders represent the teachings of Christ. They do not. William exists to remind the readers that the Crusades were a perversion of the Christian faith, just as modern terrorism is a perversion of Islam. William represents the core values of Christianity, and it was important that his character stand for truth and justice even when faced with wrongdoing by men in his own community. With regard to blending fact and fiction, I made sure that the major events described in the book—the battles, the political intrigues—were accurate to history, and then I allowed my fictional characters to behave as their personalities naturally would under the circumstances. Whether I have done so successfully must, of course, be judged by the reader.
Q. By writing this book in the third person, you give readers the privilege of direct access to many characters’ thoughts. Why did you decide to write it this way? Did you ever consider focusing on one perspective?
A: In my first novel, Mother of the Believers, I wrote from one perspective, Aisha, the wife of Prophet Muhammad. But here I chose a third-person narrative. The primary reason for the shift in storytelling is that I wanted to be fair and true to the varying points of view about faith, politics, and warfare presented in the book. In Mother of the Believers, it was very important for me to show one perspective that has rarely been explored in Western literature—that of a devout Muslim woman. That book’s purpose was to present how Muslims in general, and Muslim women in particular, see their faith and understand their history. But in Shadow of the Swords, we have an epic moment in history where three major religions are caught in a vortex of conflict. Each side—Jew, Christian, and Muslim—has a perspective of the events that unfold, and I was excited to examine these different points of view authentically. The third-person narrative device was the most appropriate way to show each character’s thoughts and highlight how people of different backgrounds can interpret the same event in completely different ways.
Q. Was there a lot of research involved in creating this story? How did you go about it?
A: I researched the story for several years. In my author’s note, I discuss some of the scholarly works and resources I turned to in crafting this tale. The Crusades have been heavily documented by historians, but rarely has the Muslim perspective been examined in Western literature. Being raised in a Muslim family, I had access to a perspective that is often ignored or misunderstood by other writers. I am hoping that my novel will inspire readers to learn more about this historical period and to examine it from new and important points of view.
Q. What was the most interesting thing you learned while conducting your research?
A: What fascinated me in my historical research was the extent to which Jews and Muslims were not only allied during the time of the Crusades, but how intimate the relationship between the two communities really was. In our current moment in history, there is a great deal of tension between the two faiths over Middle Eastern politics, and yet during most of the past thousand years, Jews and Muslims were considered natural compatriots. The two religions, Judaism and Islam, are remarkably similar in theology and ritual, as they both emerge from a common Semitic cultural heritage. Christianity, by comparison, is a very distinct tradition that owes much of its intellectual and theological heritage to Greco-Roman civilization. Christians and Jews often have difficulty understanding each other’s theologies and concepts of God and salvation, because they are actually speaking very different languages even though they share a common scripture, the Bible. Judaism and Islam have different scriptures, but their understanding of God and approach to worship are deeply parallel. I have suggested throughout this novel that “God loves irony,” and perhaps that statement is proven true in the dynamic triangle of these three faiths. Jews and Muslims have the most in common and were historically friendly, and now they are often at each other’s throats. Judaism and Christianity have much greater theological differences and were historically antagonistic, and yet today we talk of a common Judeo-Christian heritage in America. That is true irony. I hope that in this novel, particularly in how I draw the relationships among Saladin, Maimonides, and Miriam, I am able to awaken a memory in both the Muslim and the Jewish communities of a time not long past when they saw each other as family and not as enemies.
Q. How did the love story aspect of the book evolve?
A: I understood when I crafted this novel that the fictional love story between Saladin and Miriam was a potentially explosive device that could offend some readers, both Jews and Muslims. And yet for the reasons I discuss above, it was very important for me to bring these two characters together in an intimate way, so that the true commonalities and differences between their communities could be examined. Saladin has been portrayed as such a saintly figure in the Islamic tradition that I realized that depicting a covert affair with a Jewish woman was liable to upset many people. And yet I do not believe in placing human beings on idolatrous pedestals. I hope that the love story I have crafted will help readers to embrace Saladin as a real human being with a heart and soul. And I hope that romantic aspects of this story will only serve to highlight the noble aspects of Saladin’s character in not just grandiose mythic terms, but in very relatable and believable human experiences, too. Saladin was our brother, and I hope we can learn from him and emulate his nobility in our daily lives. Turning him into a plastic saint incapable of feeling the emotions that we all share does a disservice, in my view, to his incredible life example.
Q. As a Muslim, did you find it hard not to take sides and let your personal beliefs influence your portrayal of certain characters?
A: I do not believe there is such a thing as objectivity when writing about matters of faith. Everyone has an opinion on religion, and that perspective serves as a paradigm in how one views the actions of men like Richard and Saladin. I am a believing Muslim and for me the Crusades represent an act of unholy terror and aggression. And yet I am honest enough to know that the Crusaders saw themselves as heroes fighting the forces of evil. What I hope I accomplished here is to present each character’s perspective as he would have authentically seen things, and let the reader judge for himself or herself where the truth lies.
Q. Is there anything in particular that you would hope your readers will take with them after reading this book?
A: I hope that my readers will walk away with an understanding of the importance of seeing things from someone else’s point of view, especially if that perspective appears hostile or opposed to our own. The only way we human beings can transcend the cycle of fear and hate that feeds war is to learn empathy. And the first step in that journey is to recognize the humanity of our adversaries and the authenticity of their viewpoints. It does not mean we have to change or abandon our own beliefs, but in order to live in this world in peace, we must give others the right to have different views from our own. It is a lesson that I sought to have the characters in my novel learn, and I hope that it is a lesson that we can all incorporate in our lives.
Q. In what ways did the experience of writing Shadow of the Swords differ from that of writing your first book, Mother of the Believers?
A: Shadow of the Swords was actually written before Mother of the Believers, even though the latter was published first. In many ways, this novel was far more challenging for me as I had to incorporate multiple viewpoints about the Crusades, many of which conflicted with my own personal perspectives on the conflict. Mother of the Believers gave readers an intimate view of what Islam means to me as a believer. But Shadow of the Swords will, I hope, give my fans a deeper sense of my values as a human being independent of my particular religious or cultural heritage. It is a book that perhaps reveals the universal aspects of my own soul, and I hope that it will encourage my readers to look within their own hearts to find what truly matters to them about being human in a world full of diversity and conflict.
Q. What do you think your next project will be?
A: I have a few projects I am developing. They are all works of historical fiction, but my readers may be surprised at the new genres I plan to explore. One project that I intend to complete in the near future is a novel on the birth of Christianity, told from the point of view of Jesus Christ’s family and friends. I have been heavily researching the world in which Jesus lived, and I hope that it will provide real insight into how his life and teachings impacted the people of his time. And I think many people, both Christians and Muslims, will be surprised by some of my conclusions as to what Jesus was really about and how the religion founded in his name evolved in its early years. A second project that I am very excited about is actually a vampire epic set in the world of Victorian England! Many of my readers may be startled that I would choose to go from writing about matters of religion and history to the horror genre, but I think that they will be intrigued by how I meld the spiritual questions I love into a rollicking, fun vampire story. A friend who has read an early outline of the novel jokingly commented that I am becoming Anne Rice in reverse—a serious writer focusing on faith who evolves into a purveyor of vampire stories! Since I have the greatest respect for Ms. Rice’s talent and career, I took that as a compliment.
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
Kamran Pasha's novel, Shadow of the Swords, was inspired in reaction to the horrific events of September 11, 2001. As an American Muslim, he not only felt devastated by the human tragedy, but he felt an additional burden of knowing that the culprits of those crimes claimed to be acting on behalf of his faith. He knew the terrorists' beliefs were a perversion of Islam and recognized the attacks would fan the smoldering flames of conflict between Christians and Muslims. As a lifelong student of history and religion, Pasha wanted to write a story examining the roots of the animosity between Christianity and Islam. He chose the time period of the Third Crusade led by the iconic figures of King Richard the Lionheart on the Christian side and Sultan Saladin on the Muslim side. Pasha breaks the age-old Good vs. Evil dichotomy by utilizing multiple viewpoints demonstrating that everyone sees themselves as hero in their own life story. Even if they commit atrocities, they will justify their acts under the guise of heroism. The historical figure of Saladin is revered by Muslims and respected by Christians for his uncommon acts of chivalry, some of which are depicted in this novel. Two examples: sending his own physician to treat King Richard, who was dying from an illness; offering his own horse as a replacement when King Richard's horse was killed on the battlefield. Whereas, while King Richard the Lionheart has a legendary mystique about him, enhanced by tales of Robin Hood when he was away on Crusade, the historic figure is less sympathetic. To counterbalance this, Pasha created the character of Sir William Chinon to depict the chivalric ideal to carry the standard for the Christians. Pasha was not content with just showing the epic scope of the battles led by Saladin and King Richard the Lionheart, he also examines the perspective of Jews in the Levant at the time and their relationship with Muslims and Christians. The historical figure of Maimonides, a rabbi and physician to Saladin, is featured prominently as well as the character of Miriam, an educated and high-spirited Jewish woman. Miriam serves the dramatic function of interacting with both Saladin and King Richard and allows the readers to see them as human beings and not icons of legend. It is the intersection of the three great faiths of Judaism, Christianity and Islam that gives the novel its strength and heart. To understand where we are going, it is important to know where we came from. There is a lot of commonality in the Judeo-Christian-Islamic religious traditions, hopefully Shadow of the Swords will help readers focus on those unifying areas more than the differences which divides us.
The Middle Ages are my favorite era in history to study. Right now, I should tell you I majored in social studies education. I took as many classes on the medieval period as I could, because I find it fascinating. You've got religious elements, social change, trade, battles, some major historical players, oh heck yeah the Middle Ages are cool. So, when I was offered The Shadow of the Swords by Kamran Pasha, I jumped at the opportunity as a large part of the book focuses on Saladin, who is a military genius and completely fascinating. The Shadow of the Swords is adult historical fiction set during the Crusades, when it came down to Richard The Lionheart vs. Saladin. With my inclination, this book should have set me on the edge of my seat, however, I think I may have read it at the wrong time for me. First, I wasn't really in the mood to read it, but I did anyway, you know pressure and all. Second, I've been reading straight YA, and it is really hard to transition into adult fiction when you are used to books going at breakneck speed.The beginning of the book starts off with a main character who was not a real person in history. Her name is Miriam and she is Jewish. She's travelling across the Middle East with her parents when all of a sudden Crusaders come upon their caravan and kill her parents and then rape her. After that, we flash forward to about 10 years in the future. Saladin is in charge of Israel, and Richard the Lionheart has just been made king. Richard is not a big fan of Muslims and wants to reclaim the Holy Land. He also wants to cement his throne, since his brother John wants to be king too. (Also, guys, John really has a bad rap, but actually he just did the best he could, I mean COME ON, Richard drained the treasury, of course taxes had to be raised).And so, of course, these characters interweave. Battles are had. As is love. And sexytimes. I'll admit, I liked the parts with Marian, she was pretty cool. Very headstrong, however she was constantly described as being hot with her milkshake bringing all the boys to the yard, which sort of got old after the 4th time. But, I did like her ingeniuity and the fact that she enjoyed reading in a time when not a whole lot of people were literate. Also, she was sexually liberated, in that she has sex for fun and her enjoyment. Again, I like that. As for historical accuracy, I am not too sure that is an accurate portrayal of women during this time. I mean, from my love sex and marriage in the middle ages class we learned people were all about chastity and if they were getting it on, it was with hookers, not with an upper class woman, like Miriam. But, it may have been different in Israel. As for Saladin, he is so beyond cool. I mean, the man treats his war prisoners like guests instead of criminals. He is generous. He's got a great head for military. He is calm. He's also peaceful and tolerate of other religions. Now, of course the peaceful disappears when his land is attacked. I suppose that is when all bets are off. Either way, I did enjoy reading all that focused on him.Finally, Richard. I found him to be an insufferable twit. He's so narrow-minded and cruel. I think this may have been on purpose. However, I could not wait for his parts to be over. I know history paints him as a hero, but really, I am not a fan. Personally, I like his father, Henry II best out of all the Angevins. While I should have loved this book, I slightly liked it. Now, I don't think that is the book's fault, rather it is mine for reading it when I wasn't really feeling in the mood for it.
Don't judge this book by its cover. Beneath the cheesy painting on the cover lies an exciting story of the Third Crusade in the year 1192. Richard the Lionheart leads the armies of France to reclaim the Holy Lands from the sultan Saladin. The author's beautiful writing occasionally veers into purple prose, but I didn't mind-- it was all rather fun! This is the kind of book I love- one where I can learn a lot of history and get swept away to a faraway place and time.Most interesting to me were the author's notes at the back. Kamran Pasha, a former Hollywood film and television screenwriter, relates how he was inspired to tell this story after 9/11. He felt the Crusades represent a sort of reversal of today's Christian/Muslim conflict:--"Like the Crusaders, the Muslim extremists are resorting to barbarism and brutality to fight a war they feel they cannot win any other way." Pasha delivers a wonderful religious sensitivity throughout the novel. Lovers of history and epics will no doubt be captivated by this fine work.
Few will argue the old cliché that there are "two sides to every story," or that truth requires consideration of both sides, especially when it comes to the study of written history. The tendency of history textbooks to present only one point-of-view brings to mind the famous Winston Churchill quote, "History is written by the victors." But the "victors," unfortunately, tell us only what they want us to know, and the losers generally have lost their right to argue the point. Kamran Pasha's "Shadow of the Swords" is an opportunity for Western readers to look at the bloody Third Crusade of the late twelfth century through the eyes of Saladin, commander of the Muslim forces in Palestine at the time of Richard the Lionheart's invasion of the region. Note, however, that portions of the book are written from Richard's point-of-view, although Saladin's character remains the most influential one throughout the book. Most intriguingly, at the time of Richard's quest to recover the Holy Land from the hands of the Muslim "infidels," the relative strengths and weaknesses of the European and Muslim worlds were near opposites of what they are today. The twelfth century Muslim world was well ahead of its European counterpart in the areas of science, mathematics, medicine, government and weaponry. Despite this, Europeans generally considered Muslims to be little more than barbaric infidels with no right to occupy the Holy Land, especially the city of Jerusalem. As Saladin and his people saw it, Richard the Lionheart was the terrorist of his day, leader of an army seeking to destroy Muslim and Jew, alike, in the name of Christianity. More than 800 years later, the roles and positions of the two cultures have largely reversed. Just three years before, Saladin had successfully rid Jerusalem of the Christian army that had controlled it for so long. Now, while Saladin continues to fight remnants of that army along the coast, Jerusalem is a peaceful city within which people of all faiths live and work in relative harmony. Saladin, a bit surprised at how quickly the Europeans have been able to place such a large army in Palestine to challenge him, realizes that he and his people are faced again with a war that might very well change the course of history. This fight, though, is as much about Saladin vs. Richard the Lionheart as it is about huge conflicting armies and religious differences. Pasha uses a combination of historical and fictional characters to tell his story. And his fictional characters are so vividly painted, and his historical ones so well fleshed, that it can be difficult for the reader to remember which are real and which are made up. Pasha, very helpfully, explains which are which in an attachment to the end of the book that also puts much of the story into its historical context. "Shadow of the Swords" is eye-opening historical fiction cloaked in a love story involving Miriam, the niece of Saladin's Jewish advisor and doctor, Maimonides. Fate gives Miriam a chance to charm both leaders and she makes the most of her opportunity, eagerly playing the spy on Saladin's behalf. The inclusion of a fictional character like Miriam allows Pasha to create more complete personalities for Saladin and Richard so that there is a very personal aspect to their clash as the two men meet on the biggest world stage of their day. Readers may find this one to be a little bit of a slow-starter (and some may, perhaps, even be a little put off at first by the point-of-view from which it is written). Do not, however, give up on this one too early; if you do, you are going to miss out on one heck of an adventure and a very painless history lesson. Rated at: 5.0
Shadow of the Swords is a true historical fiction, steeped in facts but yet serving to fill in the gaps that history ignored with political intrigue, suspense and romance. I really enjoyed reading this novel simply because it was really well written and well laid out. Admittedly the author did have a substantial background to work from since many of the events that were described in the book actually took place. However they were heightened in some instances with so many twists and turns that made putting this book down for even 10 mins difficult. The story is set during the Third Crusade (1187 - 1192) that is launched against the Muslim world. With this book we look at the crusades from several perspectives including Muslim, Jewish and Christian and I really appreciated that. I think that often we get a western perspective on historical events and they do not always give us an unbiased point of view. However by writing Shadow of the Swords in the third person, I believe that Pasha is allowing the reader to gain an overall understanding of the event. The two figures central to the story King Richard 1 and Sultan Saladin were quite opposites in every way and I think if you decide to look up both men, that's one of the first things you would notice. The author did a great job to show the side of these men that history has recorded but Pasha went one step further in making them complex and multi-dimensional characters that were a joy to get to know. There are instances where the characters were entirely fictional however you could hardly tell because they were so neatly weaved into the story that without a doubt, they were real men and women written in the annals of history. I think that it's for that reason that it was so hard for me to have a favourite character in this book. Saladin's chivalry, kindness and his devotion to Islamic practices were sometimes incredulous but do your research and you would realize that it is all true. I loved Miriam simply because she was a woman that was ahead of her time. She was fiercely loyal and independent, out spoken and brave. The author in his note stated that Miriam embodied the resilience of the Jews but I think I connected with her because she represented the modern ideals of women and who we all should strive to be. The cherry on the ice cream would have to be Sir William of Chinon. His character is rightly so, a sympathetic Christian and his disagreement with the crusades is how one can imagine most sympathetic Christians felt during this period. I thought that this entire book took a stab (no pun intended) at the current conflict between the Muslims and the Western world and by extension the misrepresentation of Muslims in the media. There were some quotes that I found bearing truth to this for example: "All human conflict was fundamentally premised on those two emotions, hatred and fear, bound painfully together and forced to dance to a grim tune played forever on the Reaper's tune." Pg 237 "Perhaps there will come a time when the West will be powerful again and the Arabs will fight to restore their lost glory" pg 202 For what it is worth, I do think that Pasha succeeded in shedding more favourable light over Muslims. Saladin truly embodies the core of what Islam stands for however the real question is how much of Saladin's principles and by extension that of Islam is still maintained. Shadow of the Swords is a really good read, not just for history buffs like myse
I found this incredibly interesting. It's always a little--what's the word?--enlightening to see things from the "enemy's" point of view. If you learn anything about the Crusades in school in the Western world (and I don't remember learning much), it's probably that the Christian knights were fighting to take the Holy Land back from the "infidels." I found it fascinating to see what the Muslims thought of Westerners at that time. Of course they saw them as infidels also. But they also saw them as dirty, ignorant, and without honor. They were medically and scientifically advanced and I'm guessing that Europeans hadn't progressed past leeches and wouldn't for several hundred years. I'll freely admit that I know very little about Islam. I try to keep an open mind about things, so I do know that what we see on the news is just a small group of radicals. Other than that? I don't know much. I do tend to think that women in the religion are awfully repressed. True? Sometimes true? I don't really know. I learned a few things here. I don't watch the news much, but even I've heard the stories about wives being stoned to death by their husbands for adultery. According to this book, the husband has to provide four eyewitnesses before he can punish his wife for that. If he accuses her and can't produce the witnesses, he's the one who's punished. Really? I didn't know that and had to readjust my thinking a little. There's also a line in the book where Saladin says, "The Jews are People of the Book and are protected by our religion. The Holy Prophet, peace be upon him, forbade us to oppress them." Another shocker. With all the fighting that seems to go on between them, I had no idea that was in the religion anywhere. Time to readjust my thinking yet again. Enough about all that. That's all well and good, but what about the story? I enjoyed it. There were plenty of twists and turns, and I did manage to restrain myself from cheating and checking Wikipedia to see how things turned out. Saladin became a very real character for me. It's clear that he's a legend in his own time, and even to this day, but his responsibilities weigh heavily on him. He's always trying to do the right thing, but sometimes it's hard to see what that is. He's very much a man who knows his own mind, but he's not too proud to seek the advice of others, no matter the source. Miriam, a completely fictional character, was a strong woman whom I enjoyed reading about. She's lived through unimaginable tragedy. It's left a mark on her soul, but she chooses to live her life to the fullest rather than cower in fear. She speaks her mind at all times and takes brave risks to try to help her people. I also liked William Chinon, another fictional character. He's a Crusader with a conscience. He doesn't feel any need to go on Crusade, but he travels along with his friend King Richard to try to be a voice of reason amid all the madness of war. He doesn't judge people by their beliefs (well, not too much), but rather judges them by their actions. He was a welcome relief from Richard's cruelty, and he was by far the most truly Christian person among those forces. There was one section where this otherwise-prosaic story took on an element of the fantastic to explain some stuff that happened. It was only a few pages, but those pages had big ramifications for the entire war. I wish the author had found a way around the mysticism. Really, I enjoyed this book
I've never been a history buff; I'm not good at remembering things in general, let alone things that happened one thousand years ago. I enjoy historical fiction novels, but not history books. Shadow of the Swords is somewhere in between these two. It's a serious novel, a bit dry in the beginning, but it ends with the heat and passion of the true history of the Crusades in the twelfth century. Pitted against each other in this novel, as they were in the Crusades, is Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, and Richard the Lionheart, the new king of England. When Richard's father, King Henry, dies and leaves the throne to his second son, John, Richard takes the throne by force. Determined to win the love of his nobles and subjects, and the admiration of his family, Richard embarks on a war to reclaim the city of Jerusalem, which has just been lost to Saladin. Thrust in between these two powerful foes is Miriam, a beautiful, independent, stubborn woman, scorned for her religion as a Jew by both sides. Neither man can deny their growing feelings for this emerald eyed beauty, but her actions will surprise them both. Beneath the plot of Shadow of the Swords lies evidence of Kamran Pasha's passion for writing and his love of Muslim history. He paints Saladin as a powerful warrior, terrifying and dominating, but also gentle and generous. Richard the Lionheart, known in history as a stubborn and evil tyrant, is shown as a human, with flaws but not always so heartless. The fictional love triangle is the tool Pasha uses to illustrate what these two men may have actually been like, aside from enemies. Not knowing much about the Crusades, I chose not to look up the actual history until after I read this book. What I discovered was that Pasha stays true to the factual events of AD 1189-1192, using artistic license to insert enhancing characters, as most historical fiction authors do. The difference between Pasha and others is the depth of solemnity in his novel. While other historicals are often fanciful, light imaginings, Shadow of the Swords is thoughtful and serious. Miriam may be just an author's tool, fairly predictable, but she serves Pasha's purpose. The first hundred pages of this novel were a struggle at times, but the last hundred were fast-paced and thrilling. I learned things about this time period and history that I won't easily forget. All-in-all, Shadow of the Swords is a great novel for fans of historical fiction, who like something more serious than fluffy romance.
Late in the twelfth century, Richard the Lionhearted commands his Christian army on the Third Crusade to take back the Holy Land from the Infidels. His wily adversary is Saladin whose Muslim military tries to repel the European invaders from Palestine. Richard the Christian and Saladin the Muslim share so many traits as strong skillful military and political leaders but also an attraction of the Jewish niece of Maimonides: the scholar, philosopher and physician. Each wants Miriam, but she has her own agenda to use the sly adversaries' desires to save her people. Shadow of the Swords is an excellent fully rounded medieval thriller that provides the audience an astute look at the strategic thinking of the two great leaders and that of the Jews caught in the middle of the latest crusades. Fascinatingly neither Richard nor Saladin expects to outright win, but religious loyalty means they fight in God's name. Historical fiction fans, having read the Christian perspective many times before, will fully appreciate the fresh observations of Saladin, Maimonides and Miriam as the latest bloody war in the name of God is fought. Harriet Klausner