ISBN-10:
1587134349
ISBN-13:
9781587134340
Pub. Date:
09/03/2017
Publisher:
Cisco Press
Scaling Networks v6 Companion Guide / Edition 1

Scaling Networks v6 Companion Guide / Edition 1

by Cisco Networking Academy
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Overview

Scaling Networks v6 Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Scaling Networks v6 course in the Cisco Networking Academy CCNA Routing and Switching curriculum.

The Companion Guide is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere to reinforce the material from the course and organize your time.

The book’s features help you focus on important concepts to succeed in this course:

· Chapter objectives–Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.

· Key terms–Refer to the lists of networking vocabulary introduced and highlighted in context in each chapter.

· Glossary–Consult the comprehensive Glossary with more than 250 terms.

· Summary of Activities and Labs–Maximize your study time with this complete list of all associated practice exercises at the end of each chapter.

· Check Your Understanding–Evaluate your readiness with the end-of-chapter questions that match the style of questions you see in the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer.

How To–Look for this icon to study the steps you need to learn to perform certain tasks.

Interactive Activities–Reinforce your understanding of topics with dozens of exercises from the online course identified throughout the book with this icon.

Videos–Watch the videos embedded within the online course.

Packet Tracer Activities–Explore and visualize networking concepts using Packet Tracer exercises interspersed throughout the chapters and provided in the accompanying Labs & Study Guide book.

Hands-on Labs–Work through all the course labs and additional Class Activities that are included in the course and published in the separate Labs & Study Guide.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781587134340
Publisher: Cisco Press
Publication date: 09/03/2017
Series: Companion Guide Series
Pages: 672
Sales rank: 689,911
Product dimensions: 7.90(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.20(d)

About the Author

Cisco Networking Academy is an innovative Cisco education initiative that delivers information and communication technology skills to improve career and economic opportunities around the world. The Academy provides online courses, interactive tools, and lab activities to prepare individuals for information technology and networking careers in virtually every industry.

Table of Contents

Introduction xx

Chapter 1 LAN Design 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1.1) 3

Campus Wired LAN Designs (1.1) 4

Cisco Validated Designs (1.1.1) 4

The Need to Scale the Network (1.1.1.1) 4

Hierarchical Design Model (1.1.1.2) 6

Expanding the Network (1.1.2) 8

Design for Scalability (1.1.2.1) 8

Planning for Redundancy (1.1.2.2) 10

Failure Domains (1.1.2.3) 11

Increasing Bandwidth (1.1.2.4) 13

Expanding the Access Layer (1.1.2.5) 14

Fine-tuning Routing Protocols (1.1.2.6) 15

Selecting Network Devices (1.2) 17

Switch Hardware (1.2.1) 17

Switch Platforms (1.2.1.1) 17

Port Density (1.2.1.2) 21

Forwarding Rates (1.2.1.3) 22

Power over Ethernet (1.2.1.4) 23

Multilayer Switching (1.2.1.5) 24

Router Hardware (1.2.2) 26

Router Requirements (1.2.2.1) 26

Cisco Routers (1.2.2.2) 27

Router Hardware (1.2.2.3) 28

Managing Devices (1.2.3) 29

Managing IOS Files and Licensing (1.2.3.1) 30

In-Band versus Out-of-Band Management (1.2.3.2) 30

Basic Router CLI Commands (1.2.3.3) 31

Basic Router Show Commands (1.2.3.4) 34

Basic Switch CLI Commands (1.2.3.5) 38

Basic Switch Show Commands (1.2.3.6) 40

Summary (1.3) 43

Practice 44

Check Your Understanding Questions 45

Chapter 2 Scaling VLANs 47

Objectives 47

Key Terms 47

Introduction (2.0.1.1) 48

VTP, Extended VLANs, and DTP (2.1) 48

VTP Concepts and Operation (2.1.1) 49

VTP Overview (2.1.1.1) 49

VTP Modes (2.1.1.2) 50

VTP Advertisements (2.1.1.3) 52

VTP Versions (2.1.1.4) 53

Default VTP Configuration (2.1.1.5) 53

VTP Caveats (2.1.1.6) 55

VTP Configuration (2.1.2) 57

VTP Configuration Overview (2.1.2.1) 57

Step 1–Configure the VTP Server (2.1.2.2) 58

Step 2–Configure the VTP Domain Name and Password (2.1.2.3) 59

Step 3–Configure the VTP Clients (2.1.2.4) 60

Step 4–Configure VLANs on the VTP Server (2.1.2.5) 60

Step 5–Verify That the VTP Clients Have Received the New VLAN Information (2.1.2.6) 62

Extended VLANs (2.1.3) 63

VLAN Ranges on Catalyst Switches (2.1.3.1) 63

Creating a VLAN (2.1.3.2) 65

Assigning Ports to VLANs (2.1.3.3) 66

Verifying VLAN Information (2.1.3.4) 67

Configuring Extended VLANs (2.1.3.5) 69

Dynamic Trunking Protocol (2.1.4) 71

Introduction to DTP (2.1.4.1) 71

Negotiated Interface Modes (2.1.4.2) 72

Troubleshoot Multi-VLAN Issues (2.2) 75

Inter-VLAN Configuration Issues (2.2.1) 75

Deleting VLANs (2.2.1.1) 75

Switch Port Issues (2.2.1.2) 77

Verify Switch Configuration (2.2.1.3) 79

Interface Issues (2.2.1.4) 81

Verify Routing Configuration (2.2.1.5) 82

IP Addressing Issues (2.2.2) 83

Errors with IP Addresses and Subnet Masks (2.2.2.1) 83

Verifying IP Address and Subnet Mask Configuration Issues (2.2.2.2) 85

VTP and DTP Issues (2.2.3) 88

Troubleshoot VTP Issues (2.2.3.1) 88

Troubleshoot DTP Issues (2.2.3.2) 89

Layer 3 Switching (2.3) 89

Layer 3 Switching Operation and Configuration (2.3.1) 90

Introduction to Layer 3 Switching (2.3.1.1) 90

Inter-VLAN Routing with Switch Virtual Interfaces (2.3.1.2) 91

Inter-VLAN Routing with Switch Virtual Interfaces (Con’t.) (2.3.1.3) 92

Inter-VLAN Routing with Routed Ports (2.3.1.4) 94

Troubleshoot Layer 3 Switching (2.3.2) 95

Layer 3 Switch Configuration Issues (2.3.2.1) 95

Example: Troubleshooting Layer 3 Switching (2.3.2.2) 96

Summary (2.4) 99

Practice 99

Check Your Understanding Questions 100

Chapter 3 STP 105

Objectives 105

Key Terms 105

Introduction (3.0.1.1) 107

Spanning Tree Concepts (3.1) 108

Purpose of Spanning Tree (3.1.1) 108

Redundancy at OSI Layers 1 and 2 (3.1.1.1) 108

Issues with Layer 1 Redundancy: MAC Database Instability (3.1.1.2) 109

Issues with Layer 1 Redundancy: Broadcast Storms (3.1.1.3) 111

Issues with Layer 1 Redundancy: Duplicate Unicast Frames (3.1.1.4) 113

STP Operation (3.1.2) 114

Spanning Tree Algorithm: Introduction (3.1.2.1) 114

Spanning Tree Algorithm: Port Roles (3.1.2.2) 117

Spanning Tree Algorithm: Root Bridge (3.1.2.3) 119

Spanning Tree Algorithm: Root Path Cost (3.1.2.4) 121

Port Role Decisions for RSTP (3.1.2.5) 124

Designated and Alternate Ports (3.1.2.6) 127

802.1D BPDU Frame Format (3.1.2.7) 128

802.1D BPDU Propagation and Process (3.1.2.8) 131

Extended System ID (3.1.2.9) 136

Varieties of Spanning Tree Protocols (3.2) 140

Overview (3.2.1) 140

Types of Spanning Tree Protocols (3.2.1.1) 140

Characteristics of the Spanning Tree Protocols (3.2.1.2) 141

PVST+ (3.2.2) 143

Overview of PVST+ (3.2.2.1) 143

Port States and PVST+ Operation (3.2.2.2) 144

Extended System ID and PVST+ Operation (3.2.2.3) 146

Rapid PVST+ (3.2.3) 148

Overview of Rapid PVST+ (3.2.3.1) 148

RSTP BPDUs (3.2.3.2) 149

Edge Ports (3.2.3.3) 150

Link Types (3.2.3.4) 152

Spanning Tree Configuration (3.3) 153

PVST+ Configuration (3.3.1) 153

Catalyst 2960 Default Configuration (3.3.1.1) 153

Configuring and Verifying the Bridge ID (3.3.1.2) 154

PortFast and BPDU Guard (3.3.1.3) 156

PVST+ Load Balancing (3.3.1.4) 158

Rapid PVST+ Configuration (3.3.2) 160

Spanning Tree Mode (3.3.2.1) 161

STP Configuration Issues (3.3.3) 163

Analyzing the STP Topology (3.3.3.1) 164

Expected Topology versus Actual Topology (3.3.3.2) 164

Overview of Spanning Tree Status (3.3.3.3) 165

Spanning Tree Failure Consequences (3.3.3.4) 166

Repairing a Spanning Tree Problem (3.3.3.5) 169

Switch Stacking and Chassis Aggregation (3.3.4) 169

Switch Stacking Concepts (3.3.4.1) 169

Spanning Tree and Switch Stacks (3.3.4.2) 170

Summary (3.4) 173

Practice 174

Check Your Understanding Questions 174

Chapter 4 EtherChannel and HSRP 179

Objectives 179

Key Terms 179

Introduction (4.0.1.1) 180

Link Aggregation Concepts (4.1) 181

Link Aggregation (4.1.1) 181

Introduction to Link Aggregation (4.1.1.1) 181

Advantages of EtherChannel (4.1.1.2) 182

EtherChannel Operation (4.1.2) 183

Implementation Restrictions (4.1.2.1) 183

Port Aggregation Protocol (4.1.2.2) 185

Link Aggregation Control Protocol (4.1.2.3) 186

Link Aggregation Configuration (4.2) 188

Configuring EtherChannel (4.2.1) 188

Configuration Guidelines (4.2.1.1) 188

Configuring Interfaces (4.2.1.2) 189

Verifying and Troubleshooting EtherChannel (4.2.2) 191

Verifying EtherChannel (4.2.2.1) 191

Troubleshooting EtherChannel (4.2.2.2) 194

First Hop Redundancy Protocols (4.3) 198

Concept of First Hop Redundancy Protocols (4.3.1) 198

Default Gateway Limitations (4.3.1.1) 198

Router Redundancy (4.3.1.2) 199

Steps for Router Failover (4.3.1.3) 200

First Hop Redundancy Protocols (4.3.1.5) 201

HSRP Operations (4.3.2) 202

HSRP Overview (4.3.2.1) 203

HSRP Versions (4.3.2.2) 204

HSRP Priority and Preemption (4.3.2.3) 204

HSRP States and Timers (4.3.2.4) 205

HSRP Configuration (4.3.3) 206

HSRP Configuration Commands (4.3.3.1) 206

HSRP Sample Configuration (4.3.3.2) 207

HSRP Verification (4.3.3.3) 208

HSRP Troubleshooting (4.3.4) 209

HSRP Failure (4.3.4.1) 209

HSRP Debug Commands (4.3.4.2) 210

Common HSRP Configuration Issues (4.3.4.3) 213

Summary (4.4) 214

Practice 215

Check Your Understanding Questions 216

Chapter 5 Dynamic Routing 219

Objectives 219

Key Terms 219

Introduction (5.0.1.1) 221

Dynamic Routing Protocols (5.1) 222

Types of Routing Protocols (5.1.1) 222

Classifying Routing Protocols (5.1.1.1) 222

IGP and EGP Routing Protocols (5.1.1.2) 224

Distance Vector Routing Protocols (5.1.1.3) 226

Link-State Routing Protocols (5.1.1.4) 226

Classful Routing Protocols (5.1.1.5) 228

Classless Routing Protocols (5.1.1.6) 231

Routing Protocol Characteristics (5.1.1.7) 233

Routing Protocol Metrics (5.1.1.8) 234

Distance Vector Dynamic Routing (5.2) 236

Distance Vector Fundamentals (5.2.1) 236

Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation (5.2.1.1) 236

Cold Start (5.2.1.2) 237

Network Discovery (5.2.1.3) 238

Exchanging the Routing Information (5.2.1.4) 239

Achieving Convergence (5.2.1.5) 241

Distance Vector Routing Protocol Operation (5.2.2) 242

Distance Vector Technologies (5.2.2.1) 242

Distance Vector Algorithm (5.2.2.2) 242

Types of Distance Vector Routing Protocols (5.2.3) 245

Routing Information Protocol (5.2.3.1) 245

Enhanced Interior-Gateway Routing Protocol (5.2.3.2) 246

Link-State Dynamic Routing (5.3) 248

Link-State Routing Protocol Operation (5.3.1) 248

Shortest Path First Protocols (5.3.1.1) 248

Dijkstra’s Algorithm (5.3.1.2) 248

SPF Example (5.3.1.3) 249

Link-State Updates (5.3.2) 251

Link-State Routing Process (5.3.2.1) 251

Link and Link-State (5.3.2.2) 252

Say Hello (5.3.2.3) 256

Building the Link-State Packet (5.3.2.4) 257

Flooding the LSP (5.3.2.5) 258

Building the Link-State Database (5.3.2.6) 259

Building the SPF Tree (5.3.2.7) 260

Adding OSPF Routes to the Routing Table (5.3.2.8) 264

Link-State Routing Protocol Benefits (5.3.3) 264

Why Use Link-State Protocols? (5.3.3.1) 264

Disadvantages of Link-State Protocols (5.3.3.2) 265

Protocols That Use Link-State (5.3.3.3) 267

Summary (5.4) 268

Practice 269

Check Your Understanding Questions 269

Chapter 6 EIGRP 273

Objectives 273

Key Terms 273

Introduction (6.0.1.1) 274

EIGRP Characteristics (6.1) 274

EIGRP Basic Features (6.1.1) 274

Features of EIGRP (6.1.1.1) 274

Protocol Dependent Modules (6.1.1.2) 276

Reliable Transport Protocol (6.1.1.3) 278

Authentication (6.1.1.4) 279

EIGRP Packet Types (6.1.2) 279

EIGRP Packet Types (6.1.2.1) 279

EIGRP Hello Packets (6.1.2.2) 280

EIGRP Update and Acknowledgment Packets (6.1.2.3) 281

EIGRP Query and Reply Packets (6.1.2.4) 283

EIGRP Messages (6.1.3) 284

Encapsulating EIGRP Messages (6.1.3.1) 284

EIGRP Packet Header and TLV (6.1.3.2) 285

Implement EIGRP for IPv4 (6.2) 289

Configure EIGRP with IPv4 (6.2.1) 289

EIGRP Network Topology (6.2.1.1) 289

Autonomous System Numbers (6.2.1.2) 291

The router eigrp Command (6.2.1.3) 292

EIGRP Router ID (6.2.1.4) 293

Configuring the EIGRP Router ID (6.2.1.5) 295

The network Command (6.2.1.6) 296

The network Command and Wildcard Mask (6.2.1.7) 298

Passive Interface (6.2.1.8) 300

Verify EIGRP with IPv4 (6.2.2) 302

Verifying EIGRP: Examining Neighbors (6.2.2.1) 302

Verifying EIGRP: show ip protocols Command (6.2.2.2) 304

Verifying EIGRP: Examine the IPv4 Routing Table (6.2.2.3) 306

EIGRP Operation (6.3) 309

EIGRP Initial Route Discovery (6.3.1) 309

EIGRP Neighbor Adjacency (6.3.1.1) 310

EIGRP Topology Table (6.3.1.2) 311

EIGRP Convergence (6.3.1.3) 312

EIGRP Metrics (6.3.2) 313

EIGRP Composite Metric (6.3.2.1) 313

Examining Interface Metric Values (6.3.2.2) 315

Bandwidth Metric (6.3.2.3) 316

Delay Metric (6.3.2.4) 319

How to Calculate the EIGRP Metric (6.3.2.5) 320

Calculating the EIGRP Metric (6.3.2.6) 321

DUAL and the Topology Table (6.3.3) 323

DUAL Concepts (6.3.3.1) 323

Introduction to DUAL (6.3.3.2) 324

Successor and Feasible Distance (6.3.3.3) 324

Feasible Successors, Feasibility Condition, and

Reported Distance (6.3.3.4) 326

Topology Table: show ip eigrp topology Command (6.3.3.5) 328

Topology Table: show ip eigrp topology Command (Cont.) (6.3.3.6) 329

Topology Table: No Feasible Successor (6.3.3.7) 332

DUAL and Convergence (6.3.4) 334

DUAL Finite State Machine (FSM) (6.3.4.1) 334

DUAL: Feasible Successor (6.3.4.2) 335

DUAL: No Feasible Successor (6.3.4.3) 338

Implement EIGRP for IPv6 (6.4) 341

EIGRP for IPv6 (6.4.1) 341

EIGRP for IPv6 (6.4.1.1) 341

Compare EIGRP for IPv4 and IPv6 (6.4.1.2) 342

IPv6 Link-local Addresses (6.4.1.3) 344

Configure EIGRP for IPv6 (6.4.2) 345

EIGRP for IPv6 Network Topology (6.4.2.1) 345

Configuring IPv6 Link-local Addresses (6.4.2.2) 347

Configuring the EIGRP for IPv6 Routing Process (6.4.2.3) 349

The ipv6 eigrp Interface Command (6.4.2.4) 350

Verifying EIGRP for IPv6 (6.4.3) 352

IPv6 Neighbor Table (6.4.3.1) 352

The show ip protocols Command (6.4.3.2) 354

The EIGRP for IPv6 Routing Table (6.4.3.3) 355

Summary (6.5) 358

Practice 359

Check Your Understanding Questions 360

Chapter 7 EIGRP Tuning and Troubleshooting 365

Objectives 365

Key Terms 365

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 366

Tune EIGRP (7.1) 366

Automatic Summarization (7.1.1) 366

Network Topology (7.1.1.1) 367

EIGRP Automatic Summarization (7.1.1.2) 369

Configuring EIGRP Automatic Summarization (7.1.1.3) 371

Verifying Auto-Summary: show ip protocols (7.1.1.4) 372

Verifying Auto-Summary: Topology Table (7.1.1.5) 375

Verifying Auto-Summary: Routing Table (7.1.1.6) 376

Summary Route (7.1.1.7) 378

Summary Route (Cont.) (7.1.1.8) 379

Default Route Propagation (7.1.2) 380

Propagating a Default Static Route (7.1.2.1) 380

Verifying the Propagated Default Route (7.1.2.2) 382

EIGRP for IPv6: Default Route (7.1.2.3) 383

Fine-tuning EIGRP Interfaces (7.1.3) 384

EIGRP Bandwidth Utilization (7.1.3.1) 385

Hello and Hold Timers (7.1.3.2) 386

Load Balancing IPv4 (7.1.3.3) 388

Load Balancing IPv6 (7.1.3.4) 390

Troubleshoot EIGRP (7.2) 392

Components of Troubleshooting EIGRP (7.2.1) 392

Basic EIGRP Troubleshooting Commands (7.2.1.1) 392

Components (7.2.1.2) 394

Troubleshoot EIGRP Neighbor Issues (7.2.2) 397

Layer 3 Connectivity (7.2.2.1) 397

EIGRP Parameters (7.2.2.2) 398

EIGRP Interfaces (7.2.2.3) 399

Troubleshoot EIGRP Routing Table Issues (7.2.3) 401

Passive Interface (7.2.3.1) 401

Missing Network Statement (7.2.3.2) 403

Autosummarization (7.2.3.3) 405

Summary (7.3) 410

Practice 411

Check Your Understanding Questions 412

Chapter 8 Single-Area OSPF 415

Objectives 415

Key Terms 415

Introduction (8.0.1.1) 416

OSPF Characteristics (8.1) 416

Open Shortest Path First (8.1.1) 416

Evolution of OSPF (8.1.1.1) 417

Features of OSPF (8.1.1.2) 418

Components of OSPF (8.1.1.3) 419

Link-State Operation (8.1.1.4) 420

Single-Area and Multiarea OSPF (8.1.1.5) 424

OSPF Messages (8.1.2) 426

Encapsulating OSPF Messages (8.1.2.1) 426

Types of OSPF Packets (8.1.2.2) 428

Hello Packet (8.1.2.3) 428

Hello Packet Intervals (8.1.2.4) 430

Link-State Updates (8.1.2.5) 430

OSPF Operation (8.1.3) 431

OSPF Operational States (8.1.3.1) 432

Establish Neighbor Adjacencies (8.1.3.2) 433

OSPF DR and BDR (8.1.3.3) 435

Synchronizing OSPF Databases (8.1.3.4) 438

Single-Area OSPFv2 (8.2) 440

OSPF Router ID (8.2.1) 441

OSPF Network Topology (8.2.1.1) 441

Router OSPF Configuration Mode (8.2.1.2) 442

Router IDs (8.2.1.3) 442

Configuring an OSPF Router ID (8.2.1.4) 444

Modifying a Router ID (8.2.1.5) 445

Using a Loopback Interface as the Router ID (8.2.1.6) 447

Configure Single-Area OSPFv2 (8.2.2) 448

Enabling OSPF on Interfaces (8.2.2.1) 448

Wildcard Mask (8.2.2.2) 448

The network Command (8.2.2.3) 449

Passive Interface (8.2.2.4) 450

Configuring Passive Interfaces (8.2.2.5) 451

OSPF Cost (8.2.3) 453

OSPF Metric = Cost (8.2.3.1) 454

OSPF Accumulates Costs (8.2.3.2) 455

Adjusting the Reference Bandwidth (8.2.3.3) 456

Default Interface Bandwidths (8.2.3.4) 460

Adjusting the Interface Bandwidth (8.2.3.5) 462

Manually Setting the OSPF Cost (8.2.3.6) 463

Verify OSPF (8.2.4) 464

Verify OSPF Neighbors (8.2.4.1) 465

Verify OSPF Protocol Settings (8.2.4.2) 466

Verify OSPF Process Information (8.2.4.3) 466

Verify OSPF Interface Settings (8.2.4.4) 468

Single-Area OSPFv3 (8.3) 469

OSPFv2 vs. OSPFv3 (8.3.1) 469

OSPFv3 (8.3.1.1) 469

Similarities Between OSPFv2 to OSPFv3 (8.3.1.2) 471

Differences Between OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 (8.3.1.3) 471

Link-Local Addresses (8.3.1.4) 472

Configuring OSPFv3 (8.3.2) 473

OSPFv3 Network Topology (8.3.2.1) 473

Link-Local Addresses (8.3.2.2) 475

Assigning Link-Local Addresses (8.3.2.3) 476

Configuring the OSPFv3 Router ID (8.3.2.4) 477

Modifying an OSPFv3 Router ID (8.3.2.5) 479

Enabling OSPFv3 on Interfaces (8.3.2.6) 481

Verify OSPFv3 (8.3.3) 481

Verify OSPFv3 Neighbors (8.3.3.1) 482

Verify OSPFv3 Protocol Settings (8.3.3.2) 483

Verify OSPFv3 Interfaces (8.3.3.3) 483

Verify the IPv6 Routing Table (8.3.3.4) 484

Summary (8.4) 486

Practice 487

Check Your Understanding Questions 488

Chapter 9 Multiarea OSPF 493

Objectives 493

Key Terms 493

Introduction (9.0.1.1) 494

Multiarea OSPF Operation (9.1) 494

Why Multiarea OSPF? (9.1.1) 494

Single-Area OSPF (9.1.1.1) 494

Multiarea OSPF (9.1.1.2) 495

OSPF Two-Layer Area Hierarchy (9.1.1.3) 498

Types of OSPF Routers (9.1.1.4) 499

Multiarea OSPF LSA Operation (9.1.2) 501

OSPF LSA Types (9.1.2.1) 502

OSPF LSA Type 1 (9.1.2.2) 502

OSPF LSA Type 2 (9.1.2.3) 503

OSPF LSA Type 3 (9.1.2.4) 504

OSPF LSA Type 4 (9.1.2.5) 505

OSPF LSA Type 5 (9.1.2.6) 506

OSPF Routing Table and Types of Routes (9.1.3) 506

OSPF Routing Table Entries (9.1.3.1) 507

OSPF Route Calculation (9.1.3.2) 508

Configuring Multiarea OSPF (9.2) 509

Configuring Multiarea OSPF (9.2.1) 510

Implementing Multiarea OSPF (9.2.1.1) 510

Configuring Multiarea OSPFv2 (9.2.1.2) 511

Configuring Multiarea OSPFv3 (9.2.1.3) 513

Verifying Multiarea OSPF (9.2.2) 515

Verifying Multiarea OSPFv2 (9.2.2.1) 515

Verify General Multiarea OSPFv2 Settings (9.2.2.2) 515

Verify the OSPFv2 Routes (9.2.2.3) 516

Verify the Multiarea OSPFv2 LSDB (9.2.2.4) 517

Verify Multiarea OSPFv3 (9.2.2.5) 518

Summary (9.3) 522

Practice 523

Check Your Understanding Questions 524

Chapter 10 OSPF Tuning and Troubleshooting 527

Objectives 527

Key Terms 527

Introduction (10.0.1.1) 528

Advanced Single-Area OSPF Configurations (10.1) 528

OSPF in Multiaccess Networks (10.1.1) 528

OSPF Network Types (10.1.1.1) 528

Challenges in Multiaccess Networks (10.1.1.2) 531

OSPF Designated Router (10.1.1.3) 533

Verifying DR/BDR Roles (10.1.1.4) 535

Verifying DR/BDR Adjacencies (10.1.1.5) 538

Default DR/BDR Election Process (10.1.1.6) 540

DR/BDR Election Process (10.1.1.7) 541

The OSPF Priority (10.1.1.8) 544

Changing the OSPF Priority (10.1.1.9) 544

Default Route Propagation (10.1.2) 547

Propagating a Default Static Route in OSPFv2 (10.1.2.1) 547

Verifying the Propagated IPv4 Default Route (10.1.2.2) 549

Propagating a Default Static Route in OSPFv3 (10.1.2.3) 551

Verifying the Propagated IPv6 Default Route (10.1.2.4) 552

Fine-tuning OSPF Interfaces (10.1.3) 554

OSPF Hello and Dead Intervals (10.1.3.1) 554

Modifying OSPFv2 Intervals (10.1.3.2) 555

Modifying OSPFv3 Intervals (10.1.3.3) 557

Troubleshooting Single-Area OSPF Implementations (10.2) 560

Components of Troubleshooting Single-Area OSPF (10.2.1) 560

Overview (10.2.1.1) 560

OSPF States (10.2.1.2) 560

OSPF Troubleshooting Commands (10.2.1.3) 562

Components of Troubleshooting OSPF (10.2.1.4) 566

Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPFv2 Routing Issues (10.2.2) 569

Troubleshooting Neighbor Issues (10.2.2.1) 569

Troubleshooting OSPFv2 Routing Table Issues (10.2.2.2) 573

Troubleshoot Single-Area OSPFv3 Routing Issues (10.2.3) 576

OSPFv3 Troubleshooting Commands (10.2.3.1) 576

Troubleshooting OSPFv3 (10.2.3.2) 580

Troubleshooting Multiarea OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 (10.2.4) 582

Multiarea OSPF Troubleshooting Skills (10.2.4.1) 582

Multiarea OSPF Troubleshooting Data Structures (10.2.4.2) 583

Summary (10.3) 585

Practice 587

Check Your Understanding Questions 587

Appendix A Answers to the Review Questions 591

Glossary 603

9781587134340 TOC 7/18/2017

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