ISBN-10:
1583212256
ISBN-13:
9781583212257
Pub. Date:
08/28/2002
Publisher:
American Water Works Association
Removal of Algal Toxins from Drinking Water Using Ozone and Gac

Removal of Algal Toxins from Drinking Water Using Ozone and Gac

by Gayle Newcombe

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781583212257
Publisher: American Water Works Association
Publication date: 08/28/2002
Pages: 133
Product dimensions: 8.28(w) x 11.00(h) x 0.37(d)

Table of Contents

List of Tablesix
List of Figuresxi
Forewordxv
Acknowledgmentsxvii
Executive Summaryxix
Chapter 1Background1
Cyanobacteria and their Toxins1
Neurotoxins1
Hepatotoxins1
General Cytotoxins2
Endotoxins2
Treatment Options5
UV Irradiation5
Ozone/Chlorine Oxidation7
Activated Carbon7
Biodegradation8
Research Objectives9
Chapter 2Isolation, Purification and Analysis of Toxins11
Isolation and Purification of Toxins11
Anatoxin-a11
Microcystin LR and LA11
Saxitoxins13
Analysis15
Toxin standards15
Microcystins15
Anatoxin-a15
Saxitoxins16
Chapter 3Laboratory Scale Ozonation Experiments19
Ozonation of Toxins in Four Waters19
Introduction19
Materials and Methods20
Results and Discussion24
Estimation of Ct (Concentration X Time) Values39
Decomposition of Ozone in Hope Valley and Edenhope Treated Water39
Destruction of Microcystins in Hope Valley and Edenhope Treated Water43
Toxicity Assessment46
Experimental Methods47
Results and Discussion50
Summary and Conclusions53
Chapter 4Pilot Scale Ozone/GAC Trials55
Background55
Pilot Plant Design57
Dimensions and Backwashing Procedures57
Activated Carbon59
Experimental Design61
Hope Valley Pilot Study62
Toxin Removal62
Water Quality65
Biofilm development70
Myponga Pilot Study73
Toxin Removal73
Water Quality77
Biofilm development80
Comparison of Hope Valley and Myponga Pilot Studies84
Summary and Conclusions88
Chapter 5Laboratory Scale GAC Trials91
Saxitoxin Removal91
Activated Carbon91
Hope Valley Water93
Myponga Water97
Microcystin Removal99
Summary and Conclusions102
Chapter 6Biodegradation of Microcystin LR and LA105
Experiment 1Biodegradation in Enriched Medium105
Experimental105
Results and Discussion106
Experiment 2Biodegradation in Enriched and Non-Enriched Myponga Water107
Experimental107
Results and Discussion108
Experiment 3Biodegradation by Individual Identified Bacterial Isolates, and Known Microcystin Degrading Bacteria110
Experimental110
Results and Discussion111
Experiment 4Biodegradation in Hope Valley and Myponga Water112
Experimental112
Results and Discussion113
Summary and Conclusions115
Chapter 7Recommendations to Utilities117
Microcystins117
Saxitoxins118
Anatoxin-a118
References121
List of Abbreviations131

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