ISBN-10:
0130083917
ISBN-13:
9780130083913
Pub. Date:
07/28/2002
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Prestressed Concrete: A Fundamental Approach / Edition 4

Prestressed Concrete: A Fundamental Approach / Edition 4

by Edward Nawy
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Overview

A state-of-the-art book written by a national and international expert on concrete structures and materials, this fourth edition of Prestressed Concrete -- A Fundamental Approach reflects the very latest ACI 318-02 Code, International Building Code IBC 2000-2003, and AASHTO 2002. It puts at the disposal of the user the author's many years of professional and academic know-how in design, construction, and forensic engineering. This book is different from most because its major topics of material behavior, prestress losses, flexure, shear, torsion, and deflection-camber are sequentially self-contained and can be covered in one semester at the senior and the graduate levels. It uniquely follows procedures given in over 20 flowcharts and 400 illustrations that simplify the understanding and application of the subject in design, using both the customary US and the SI units in the examples.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780130083913
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 07/28/2002
Series: Prentice-Hall International Series in Civil Engineering and Engineering Mechanics
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 960
Product dimensions: 8.10(w) x 10.36(h) x 1.58(d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

PREFACE

Prestressed concrete is a widely used material in construction. Hence, graduates of every civil engineering program must have, as a minimum requirement, a basic understanding of the fundamentals of linear and circular prestressed concrete. The high technology advancements in the science of materials have made it possible to construct and assemble large-span systems such as cable-stayed bridges, segmental bridges, nuclear reactor vessels, and offshore oil drilling platforms— work hitherto impossible to undertake.

Reinforced concrete's tensile strength is limited, while its compressive strength is extensive. Consequently, prestressing becomes essential in many applications in order to fully utilize the compressive strength and, through proper design, to eliminate or control cracking and deflection. Additionally, design of the members of a total structure is best achieved only by trial and adjustment: assuming a section and then analyzing it. Hence, design and analysis are combined in this work in order to make it simpler for the student first introduced to the subject of prestressed concrete design.

This third edition of the book extensively revises the previous text so as to conform to the new ACI 318-99 Code and the International Building Code, IBC 2000, for seismic design. The text is the outgrowth of the author's lecture notes developed in teaching the subject at Rutgers University over the past forty years and the experience accumulated over the years in teaching and research in the areas of reinforced and prestressed concrete inclusive of the Ph.D. level. The material is presented in such a manner that the student can becomefamiliarized with the properties of plain concrete, both normal and high strength, and its components prior to embarking on the study of structural behavior. The book is uniquely different from other textbooks on the subject in that the major topics of material behavior, prestress loss, flexure, shear, and torsion are self-contained and can be covered in one semester at the senior level and the graduate level. The in-depth discussions of these topics permit the advanced undergraduate and graduate student, as well as the design engineer to develop with minimum effort a profound understanding of fundamentals of prestressed concrete structural behavior and performance.

The concise discussion presented in Chapters 1 through 3 on basic principles, the historical development of prestressed concrete, the properties of constituent materials, the long-term basic behavior of such materials, and the evaluation of prestress losses should give an adequate introduction to the subject of prestressed concrete. They should also aid in developing fundamental knowledge regarding the reliability of performance of prestressed structures, a concept to which every engineering student should be exposed today.

Chapters 4 and 5 on flexure, shear, and torsion, with the step-by-step logic of trial and adjustment as well as the flowcharts shown, give the student and the engineer a basic understanding of both the service load and the limit state of load at failure, thereby producing a good feel for the reserve strength and safety factors inherent in the design expressions. Chapter 4 in this edition contains the latest design procedure with numerical examples for the design of end anchorages of post-tensioned members as required by the latest ACI and AASHTO codes, inclusive of the "strut and tie" method of end anchorage design. All examples using single-tees were replaced by double-tees since use of single-tees is no longer current. Chapter 5 presents, with design examples, the provisions on torsion combined with shear and bending, which include a unified approach to the topic of torsion in reinforced and prestressed concrete members. SI units examples included in the text in addition to having equivalent SI conversions for the major steps of examples throughout the book. Additionally, a detailed theoretical discussion is presented on the mechanisms of shear and torsion, the various approaches to the torsional problem and the plastic concepts of the shear equilibrium and torsional equilibrium theories and their interaction.

Furthermore, inclusion in this edition of new design examples is SI Units and a listing of the relevant equations in SI format extends the scope of the text to cover wider applications by the profession. In this manner, the student as well as the practicing engineer can avail themselves with the tools for using either the lb-in. (PI) system or the international (SI) system.

Chapter 6 on indeterminate prestressed concrete structures covers in detail continuous prestressed beams as well as portal frames. Numerous detailed examples illustrate the use of the basic concepts method, the C-line method and the load-balancing method presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 7 was revamped and all the examples were changed using double-tees for deflection computation for both noncomposite and composite members. The chapter discusses in detail the design for camber, deflection, and crack control considering both short- and long-term effects using three different approaches: the PCI multipliers method, the detailed incremental time steps method, and the approximate time steps method. A state-ofthe-art discussion is presented, based on the author's work, of the evaluation and control of flexural cracking in partially prestressed beams. Several design examples are included in the discussion. Chapter 8 covers the proportioning of prestressed compression and tension members, including the buckling behavior and design of prestressed columns and piles and the P-Δ effect in the design of slender columns. A new section was added presenting a modified easier to use reciprocal method for biaxial bending design of columns.

Chapter 9 presents a thorough analysis of the service load behavior and yield-line behavior of two-way action prestressed slabs and plates. The service load behavior utilizes, with extensive examples, the equivalent frame method of flexural design (analysis) and deflection evaluation. Detailed discussion is given on shear-moment transfer and on deflection of two-way plates with computational examples. Extensive coverage is presented of the yield-line failure mechanisms of all the usual combinations of loads on floor slabs and boundary conditions, including the design expressions for these various conditions. Chapter 10 on connections for prestressed concrete elements covers the design of connections for dapped-end beams, ledge beams, and bearing, in addition to the design of the beams and corbels presented in Chapter 5 on shear and torsion.

This book is also unique in that Chapter 11 gives a detailed account of the analysis and design of prestressed concrete tanks and their shell roofs. Presented are the basics of the membrane and bending theories of cylindrical shells for use in the design of prestressed tanks for the various wall boundary conditions of fixed, semi-fixed, hinged, and sliding wall bases, as well as the incorporation of vertical prestressing. Chapter 11 also discusses the theory of axisymmetrical shells and domes that are used in the design of domed roofs for circular tanks.

A new and extensive Chapter 12 was added using the latest LRFD and Standard AASHTO specifications for the design of prestressed bridge deck girders for flexure, shear, torsion and serviceability, including the design of end-anchorage blocks. Several extensive examples are given using bulb-tees and box girder sections. The chapter also includes the AASHTO requirements for truck and lane loadings and load combinations as stipulated both by the LRFD and the Standard specifications.

A new and extensive Chapter 13 was added dealing with the seismic design of pre stressed precast structures in high seismicity zones based on the latest ACI 318-99 and the International Building Code, IBC 2000, on sesimic design of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. It contains several design examples and a detailed discussion of ductile moment-resistant connections in high-rise buildings and parking garages in high seismicity zones and a unique approach for the design of such ductile connections inprecast beam-column joints. It also contains examples of the design of shear walls and hybrid connections— all based on the state of the art in this field.

It is important to emphasize that in this field, the use of computers is essential. Access to personal and handheld computers has made it possible for almost every student and engineer to be equipped with such a tool. Accordingly, Appendix A-1 presents a typical computer program in Q-BASIC for personal computers for the evaluation of time dependent losses in prestress. Other programs as described in the appendix can be purchased from N.C.SOFTWARE, Box 161, East Brunswick, New Jersey, 08816. The inclusion of extensive flowcharts throughout the book and the discussion of the logic involved in them makes it possible for the reader to develop or use such programs without difficulty.

Selected photographs involving various areas of the structural behavior of concrete elements at failure are included in all the chapters. They are taken from research work published by the author with many of his MS and Ph.D. students at Rutgers University over the past four decades. Additionally, photographs of some major prestressed concrete "landmark" structures, are included throughout the book to illustrate the versatility of design in pretensioned and post-tensioned prestressed concrete. Appendices have also been included, with monograms and tables on standard properties, beam sections and charts of flexural and shear evaluation of sections, as well as representative tables for selecting sections such as PCI double-tees, PCI/AASHTO bulb tees, box girder, and AASHTO standard sections for bridge decks. Conversion to SI metric units are included in the examples throughout most chapters of the book.

The topics of the book have been presented in as concise a manner as possible without sacrificing the need for instructional details. The major portions of the text can be used without difficulty in an advanced senior-level course as well as at the graduate level for any student who has had a prior course in reinforced concrete. The contents should also serves as a valuable guideline for the practicing engineer who has to keepabreast of the state-of-the-art in prestressed concrete and the latest provisions of the ACI 318-99 Building Code and the International Building Code (IBC 2000), as well as the designer who seeks a concise treatment of the fundamentals of linear and circular prestressing.

Table of Contents

Prefacexvii
1Basic Concepts1
1.1Introduction1
1.2Historical Development of Prestressing5
1.3Basic Concepts of Prestressing7
1.4Computation of Fiber Stresses in a Prestressed Beam by the Basic Method19
1.5C-Line Computation of Fiber Stresses21
1.6Load-Balancing Computation of Fiber Stresses22
1.7SI Working Stress Concepts23
References27
Problems28
2Materials and Systems for Prestressing31
2.1Concrete31
2.2Stress-Strain Curve of Concrete36
2.3Modulus of Elasticity and Change in Compressive Strength with Time36
2.4Creep43
2.5Shrinkage48
2.6Nonprestressing Reinforcement50
2.7Prestressing Reinforcement53
2.8ACI Maximum Permissible Stresses in Concrete and Reinforcement59
2.9AASHTO Maximum Permissible Stresses in Concrete and Reinforcement60
2.10Prestressing Systems and Anchorages61
2.11Circular Prestressing70
2.12Ten Principles70
References70
3Partial Loss of Prestress73
3.1Introduction73
3.2Elastic Shortening of Concrete (ES)75
3.3Steel Stress Relaxation (R)78
3.4Creep Loss (CR)80
3.5Shrinkage Loss (SH)83
3.6Losses Due to Friction (F)85
3.7Anchorage-Seating Losses (A)88
3.8Change of Prestress Due to Bending of a Member ([Delta]f[subscript pB])90
3.9Step-by-Step Computation of All Time-Dependent Losses in a Pre-Tension Beam90
3.10Step-by-Step Computation of All Time-Dependent Losses in a Post-Tension Beam96
3.11Lump-Sum Computation of Time-Dependent Losses in Prestress99
3.12SI Prestress Loss Expressions100
References104
Problems104
4Flexural Design of Prestressed Concrete Elements106
4.1Introduction106
4.2Selection of Geometrical Properties of Section Components108
4.3Service-Load Design Examples115
4.4Proper Selection of Beam Sections and Properties128
4.5End Blocks at Support Anchorage Zones139
4.6Flexural Design of Composite Beams158
4.7Summary of Step-by-Step Trial-and-Adjustment Procedure for the Service-Load Design of Prestressed Members162
4.8Design of Composite Post-Tensioned Prestressed Simply Supported Section165
4.9Ultimate-Strength Flexural Design178
4.10Load and Strength Factors181
4.11ACI Load Factors and Safety Margins184
4.12Limit State in Flexure at Ultimate Load in Bonded Members: Decompression to Ultimate Load188
4.13Preliminary Ultimate-Load Design202
4.14Summary Step-by-Step Procedure for Limit at Failure Design of the Prestressed Members204
4.15Ultimate Strength Design of Prestressed Simply Supported Beam by Strain Compatibility209
4.16Strength Design of Bonded Prestressed Simply Supported Beam Using Approximate Procedures212
4.17SI Flexural Design Expression216
References219
Problems221
5Shear and Torsional Strength Design223
5.1Introduction223
5.2Behavior of Homogeneous Beams in Shear224
5.3Behavior of Concrete Beams as Nonhomogeneous Sections227
5.4Concrete Beams without Diagonal Tension Reinforcement228
5.5Shear and Principal Stresses in Prestressed Beams232
5.6Web-Shear Reinforcement238
5.7Horizontal Shear Strength in Composite Construction242
5.8Web Reinforcement Design Procedure for Shear246
5.9Principal Tensile Stresses in Flanged Sections and Design of Dowel-Action Vertical Steel in Composite Sections249
5.10Dowel Steel Design for Composite Action250
5.11Dowel Reinforcement Design for Composite Action in an Inverted T-Beam251
5.12Shear Strength and Web-Shear Steel Design in a Prestressed Beam253
5.13Web-Shear Steel Design by Detailed Procedures256
5.14Design of Web Reinforcement for a PCI Standard Double Composite T-Beam259
5.15Brackets and Corbels263
5.16Torsional Behavior and Strength278
5.17Torison in Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Elements284
5.18Design Procedure for Combined Torsion and Shear304
5.19Design of Web Reinforcement for Combined Torsion and Shear in Prestressed Beams308
5.20SI Combined Torsion and Shear Design of Prestressed Beam317
References320
Problems321
6Indeterminate Prestressed Concrete Structures324
6.1Introduction324
6.2Disadvantages of Continuity in Prestressing325
6.3Tendon Layout for Continuous Beams325
6.4Elastic Analysis for Prestress Continuity328
6.5Examples Involving Continuity331
6.6Linear Transformation and Concordance of Tendons338
6.7Ultimate Strength and Limit State at Failure of Continuous Beams342
6.8Tendon Profile Envelope and Modifications346
6.9Tendon and C-Line Location in Continuous Beams346
6.10Tendon Transformation to Utilize Advantages of Continuity357
6.11Design for Continuity Using Nonprestressed Steel at Support362
6.12Indeterminate Frames and Portals363
6.13Limit Design (Analysis) of Indeterminate Beams and Frames385
References399
Problems401
7Camber, Deflection, and Crack Control402
7.1Introduction402
7.2Basic Assumptions in Deflection Calculations403
7.3Short-Term (Instantaneous) Deflection of Uncracked and Cracked Members404
7.4Short-Term Deflection at Service Load417
7.5Short-Term Deflection of Cracked Prestressed Beams423
7.6Construction of Moment-Curvature Diagram424
7.7Long-Term Effects on Deflection and Camber430
7.8Permissible Limits of Calculated Deflection437
7.9Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the PCI Multipliers Method438
7.10Long-Term Camber and Deflection Calculation by the Incremental Time-Steps Method442
7.11Long-Term Camber and Deflection Computation by the Approximate Time-Steps Method453
7.12Long-Term Deflection of Composite Double-T Cracked Beam456
7.13Cracking Behavior and Crack Control in Prestressed Beams463
7.14Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned T-Beam Without Mild Steel469
7.15Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned T-Beam Containing Nonprestressed Steel470
7.16Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation in Pretensioned I-Beam Containing Nonprestressed Mild Steel471
7.17Crack Width and Spacing Evaluation for Post-tensioned T-Beam Containing Nonprestressed Steel472
7.18Crack Control by ACI Code Provisions474
7.19SI Deflection and Cracking Expressions474
7.20SI Deflection Control475
7.21SI Crack Control480
References480
Problems481
8Prestressed Compression and Tension Members484
8.1Introduction484
8.2Prestressed Compression Members: Load-Moment Interaction in Columns and Piles485
8.3Strength Reduction Factor [phi]491
8.4Operational Procedure for the Design of Nonslender Prestressed Compression Members492
8.5Construction of Nominal Load-Moment (P[subscript n]-M[subscript n]) and Design (P[subscript u]-M[subscript u]) Interaction Diagrams493
8.6Limit State at Buckling Failure of Slender (Long) Prestressed Columns499
8.7Moment Magnification Method: First-Order Analysis504
8.8Second-Order Frame Analysis and P - [Delta] Effects507
8.9Operational Procedure and Flowchart for the Design of Slender Columns509
8.10Design of Slender (Long) Prestressed Column509
8.11Compression Members in Biaxial Bending515
8.12Practical Design Considerations521
8.13Reciprocal Load Method for Biaxial Bending524
8.14Modified Load Contour Method for Biaxial Bending526
8.15Prestressed Tension Members528
8.16Suggested Step-by-Step Procedure for the Design of Tension Members532
8.17Design of Linear Tension Members532
References535
Problems536
9Two-Way Prestressed Concrete Floor Systems538
9.1Introduction: Review of Methods538
9.2Flexural Behavior of Two-Way Slabs and Plates542
9.3The Equivalent Frame Method543
9.4Two-Directional Load Balancing551
9.5Flexural Strength of Prestressed Plates553
9.6Bending of Prestressing Tendons and Limiting Concrete Stresses556
9.7Load-Balancing Design of a Single-Panel Two-Way Floor Slab561
9.8One-Way Slab Systems566
9.9Shear-Moment Transfer to Columns Supporting Flat Plates567
9.10Step-by-Step Trial-and-Adjustment Procedure for the Design of a Two-Way Prestressed Slab and Plate System571
9.11Design of Prestressed Post-Tensioned Flat-Plate Floor System576
9.12Direct Method of Deflection Evaluation593
9.13Deflection Evaluation of Two-Way Prestressed Concrete Floor Slabs597
9.14Yield-Line Theory for Two-Way-Action Plates600
9.15Yield-Line Moment Strength of a Two-Way Prestressed Concrete Plate612
References613
Problems614
10Connections for Prestressed Concrete Elements616
10.1Introduction616
10.2Tolerances617
10.3Composite Members617
10.4Reinforced Concrete Bearing in Composite Members618
10.5Dapped-End Beam Connections624
10.6Reinforced Concrete Brackets and Corbels631
10.7Concrete Beam Ledges631
10.8Selected Connection Details635
References643
Problems643
11Prestressed Concrete Circular Storage Tanks and Steel Roofs644
11.1Introduction644
11.2Design Principles and Procedures645
11.3Moment M[subscript 0] and Ring Force Q[subscript 0] in Liquid Retaining Tank658
11.4Ring Force Q[subscript y] at Intermediate Heights of Wall660
11.5Cylindrical Steel Membrane Coefficients661
11.6Prestressing Effects on Wall Stresses for Fully Hinged, Partially Sliding and Hinged, Fully Fixed, and Partially Fixed Bases663
11.7Recommended Practice for Situ-Cast and Precast Prestressed Concrete Circular Storage Tanks688
11.8Crack Control in Walls of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks692
11.9Tank Roof Design692
11.10Prestressed Concrete Tanks with Circumferential Tendons699
11.11Seismic Design of Liquid Containment Tank Structures699
11.12Step-by-Step Procedure for the Design of Circular Prestressed Concrete Tanks and Dome Roofs704
11.13Design of Circular Prestressed Concrete Water-Retaining Tank and Its Domed Roof711
References724
Problems725
12LRFD and Standard AASHTO Design of Concrete Bridges726
12.1Introduction: Safety and Reliability726
12.2AASHTO Standard (LFD) and LRFD Truck Load Specifications728
12.3Flexural Design Considerations742
12.4Shear Design Considerations746
12.5Horizontal Interface Shear750
12.6Combined Shear and Torsion753
12.7AASHTO-LRFD Flexural-Strength Design Specifications vs. ACI Code Provisions755
12.8Step-by-Step Design Procedure (LRFD)758
12.9LRFD Design of Bulb-Tee Bridge Deck762
12.10LRFD Shear and Deflection Design776
12.11Standard AASHTO Flexural Design of Prestressed Bridge Deck Beams (LFD)783
12.12Standard AASHTO Shear Reinforcement Design of Bridge Deck Beams791
12.13Shear and Torsion Reinforcement Design of a Box-Girder Bridge795
12.14LRFD Major Design Expressions in Sl Format802
References803
Problems804
13Seismic Design of Prestressed Concrete Structures806
13.1Introduction: Mechanism of Earthquakes806
13.2Spectreal Response Method811
13.3Equivalent Lateral Force Method819
13.4Seismic Shear Forces in Beams and Columns of a Frame: Strong Column-Weak Beam Concept826
13.5ACI Confining Reinforcements for Structural Concrete Members829
13.6Seismic Design Concepts in High Rise Buildings and Other Structures837
13.7Structural Systems in Seismic Zones840
13.8Dual Systems849
13.9Design Procedure for Earthquake-Resistant Structures852
13.10Sl Seismic Design Expressions856
13.11Seismic Base Shear and Lateral Forces and Moments by the IBC Approach859
13.12Seismic Shear Wall Design and Detailing862
13.13Example 13.3 Structural Precast Wall Base Connection Design867
13.14Design of Precast Prestressed Ductile Frame Connection in a High Rise Building in High-Seismicity Zone Using Dywidag Ductile Connection Assembly (DDC)870
13.15Design of Precast Prestressed Ductile Frame Connection in a High-Rise Building in High-Seismicity Zone Using a Hybrid Connector System875
References880
Problems882
Appendix AComputer Programs in Q-Basic885
Appendix BUnit Conversions, Design Information, Properties of Reinforcement899
Appendix CSelected Typical Standard Precast Double Tees, Inverted Tees, Hollow Core Sections, and AASHTO Bridge Sections920
Index935

Preface

PREFACE:

PREFACE

Prestressed concrete is a widely used material in construction. Hence, graduates of every civil engineering program must have, as a minimum requirement, a basic understanding of the fundamentals of linear and circular prestressed concrete. The high technology advancements in the science of materials have made it possible to construct and assemble large-span systems such as cable-stayed bridges, segmental bridges, nuclear reactor vessels, and offshore oil drilling platforms— work hitherto impossible to undertake.

Reinforced concrete's tensile strength is limited, while its compressive strength is extensive. Consequently, prestressing becomes essential in many applications in order to fully utilize the compressive strength and, through proper design, to eliminate or control cracking and deflection. Additionally, design of the members of a total structure is best achieved only by trial and adjustment: assuming a section and then analyzing it. Hence, design and analysis are combined in this work in order to make it simpler for the student first introduced to the subject of prestressed concrete design.

This third edition of the book extensively revises the previous text so as to conform to the new ACI 318-99 Code and the International Building Code, IBC 2000, for seismic design. The text is the outgrowth of the author's lecture notes developed in teaching the subject at Rutgers University over the past forty years and the experience accumulated over the years in teaching and research in the areas of reinforced and prestressed concrete inclusive of the Ph.D. level. The material is presented in such a manner that the student canbecomefamiliarized with the properties of plain concrete, both normal and high strength, and its components prior to embarking on the study of structural behavior. The book is uniquely different from other textbooks on the subject in that the major topics of material behavior, prestress loss, flexure, shear, and torsion are self-contained and can be covered in one semester at the senior level and the graduate level. The in-depth discussions of these topics permit the advanced undergraduate and graduate student, as well as the design engineer to develop with minimum effort a profound understanding of fundamentals of prestressed concrete structural behavior and performance.

The concise discussion presented in Chapters 1 through 3 on basic principles, the historical development of prestressed concrete, the properties of constituent materials, the long-term basic behavior of such materials, and the evaluation of prestress losses should give an adequate introduction to the subject of prestressed concrete. They should also aid in developing fundamental knowledge regarding the reliability of performance of prestressed structures, a concept to which every engineering student should be exposed today.

Chapters 4 and 5 on flexure, shear, and torsion, with the step-by-step logic of trial and adjustment as well as the flowcharts shown, give the student and the engineer a basic understanding of both the service load and the limit state of load at failure, thereby producing a good feel for the reserve strength and safety factors inherent in the design expressions. Chapter 4 in this edition contains the latest design procedure with numerical examples for the design of end anchorages of post-tensioned members as required by the latest ACI and AASHTO codes, inclusive of the "strut and tie" method of end anchorage design. All examples using single-tees were replaced by double-tees since use of single-tees is no longer current. Chapter 5 presents, with design examples, the provisions on torsion combined with shear and bending, which include a unified approach to the topic of torsion in reinforced and prestressed concrete members. SI units examples included in the text in addition to having equivalent SI conversions for the major steps of examples throughout the book. Additionally, a detailed theoretical discussion is presented on the mechanisms of shear and torsion, the various approaches to the torsional problem and the plastic concepts of the shear equilibrium and torsional equilibrium theories and their interaction.

Furthermore, inclusion in this edition of new design examples is SI Units and a listing of the relevant equations in SI format extends the scope of the text to cover wider applications by the profession. In this manner, the student as well as the practicing engineer can avail themselves with the tools for using either the lb-in. (PI) system or the international (SI) system.

Chapter 6 on indeterminate prestressed concrete structures covers in detail continuous prestressed beams as well as portal frames. Numerous detailed examples illustrate the use of the basic concepts method, the C-line method and the load-balancing method presented in Chapter 1. Chapter 7 was revamped and all the examples were changed using double-tees for deflection computation for both noncomposite and composite members. The chapter discusses in detail the design for camber, deflection, and crack control considering both short- and long-term effects using three different approaches: the PCI multipliers method, the detailed incremental time steps method, and the approximate time steps method. A state-ofthe-art discussion is presented, based on the author's work, of the evaluation and control of flexural cracking in partially prestressed beams. Several design examples are included in the discussion. Chapter 8 covers the proportioning of prestressed compression and tension members, including the buckling behavior and design of prestressed columns and piles and the P-Δ effect in the design of slender columns. A new section was added presenting a modified easier to use reciprocal method for biaxial bending design of columns.

Chapter 9 presents a thorough analysis of the service load behavior and yield-line behavior of two-way action prestressed slabs and plates. The service load behavior utilizes, with extensive examples, the equivalent frame method of flexural design (analysis) and deflection evaluation. Detailed discussion is given on shear-moment transfer and on deflection of two-way plates with computational examples. Extensive coverage is presented of the yield-line failure mechanisms of all the usual combinations of loads on floor slabs and boundary conditions, including the design expressions for these various conditions. Chapter 10 on connections for prestressed concrete elements covers the design of connections for dapped-end beams, ledge beams, and bearing, in addition to the design of the beams and corbels presented in Chapter 5 on shear and torsion.

This book is also unique in that Chapter 11 gives a detailed account of the analysis and design of prestressed concrete tanks and their shell roofs. Presented are the basics of the membrane and bending theories of cylindrical shells for use in the design of prestressed tanks for the various wall boundary conditions of fixed, semi-fixed, hinged, and sliding wall bases, as well as the incorporation of vertical prestressing. Chapter 11 also discusses the theory of axisymmetrical shells and domes that are used in the design of domed roofs for circular tanks.

A new and extensive Chapter 12 was added using the latest LRFD and Standard AASHTO specifications for the design of prestressed bridge deck girders for flexure, shear, torsion and serviceability, including the design of end-anchorage blocks. Several extensive examples are given using bulb-tees and box girder sections. The chapter also includes the AASHTO requirements for truck and lane loadings and load combinations as stipulated both by the LRFD and the Standard specifications.

A new and extensive Chapter 13 was added dealing with the seismic design of pre stressed precast structures in high seismicity zones based on the latest ACI 318-99 and the International Building Code, IBC 2000, on sesimic design of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. It contains several design examples and a detailed discussion of ductile moment-resistant connections in high-rise buildings and parking garages in high seismicity zones and a unique approach for the design of such ductile connections inprecast beam-column joints. It also contains examples of the design of shear walls and hybrid connections— all based on the state of the art in this field.

It is important to emphasize that in this field, the use of computers is essential. Access to personal and handheld computers has made it possible for almost every student and engineer to be equipped with such a tool. Accordingly, Appendix A-1 presents a typical computer program in Q-BASIC for personal computers for the evaluation of time dependent losses in prestress. Other programs as described in the appendix can be purchased from N.C.SOFTWARE, Box 161, East Brunswick, New Jersey, 08816. The inclusion of extensive flowcharts throughout the book and the discussion of the logic involved in them makes it possible for the reader to develop or use such programs without difficulty.

Selected photographs involving various areas of the structural behavior of concrete elements at failure are included in all the chapters. They are taken from research work published by the author with many of his MS and Ph.D. students at Rutgers University over the past four decades. Additionally, photographs of some major prestressed concrete "landmark" structures, are included throughout the book to illustrate the versatility of design in pretensioned and post-tensioned prestressed concrete. Appendices have also been included, with monograms and tables on standard properties, beam sections and charts of flexural and shear evaluation of sections, as well as representative tables for selecting sections such as PCI double-tees, PCI/AASHTO bulb tees, box girder, and AASHTO standard sections for bridge decks. Conversion to SI metric units are included in the examples throughout most chapters of the book.

The topics of the book have been presented in as concise a manner as possible without sacrificing the need for instructional details. The major portions of the text can be used without difficulty in an advanced senior-level course as well as at the graduate level for any student who has had a prior course in reinforced concrete. The contents should also serves as a valuable guideline for the practicing engineer who has to keepabreast of the state-of-the-art in prestressed concrete and the latest provisions of the ACI 318-99 Building Code and the International Building Code (IBC 2000), as well as the designer who seeks a concise treatment of the fundamentals of linear and circular prestressing.

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