Pub. Date:
Battelle Press
Options for Remote Monitoring and Control of Small Drinking Water Facilities

Options for Remote Monitoring and Control of Small Drinking Water Facilities

by Pollack


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This book provides information to select, design, and implement remote telemetry supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems for use with various water treatment systems. The book also contains information on the sensitivity and reliability of various techniques for remote monitoring and control as well as for transmitting and receiving electronic information.

This book will be especially valuable to those responsible for the approximately 190,000 small drinking water treatment systems throughout the United States. Communities being served by small treatment systems often do not have the resources to support qualified operators for their systems. Options outlined in the book for remote monitoring and control provide a mechanism for individuals to understand, select, design, and evaluate emerging technologies in water quality monitoring, process control, data acquisition, and data transmitting/receiving. Implementing selected options could significantly reduce the cost of operating a treatment system, thereby bringing safe drinking water within reach of small communities.

In addition to the in-depth discussion of water quality and remote monitoring technologies, the book includes information on water quality regulations and commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) devices for water quality monitoring, process control, data acquisition, and data transmitting/receiving.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781574770728
Publisher: Battelle Press
Publication date: 06/01/1999
Pages: 302
Product dimensions: 7.18(w) x 10.44(h) x 0.88(d)

Table of Contents




Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Symbols

1 Introduction

1.1 Literature Search Methodology

1.2 Organization

1.3 References

2 Small Treatment Systems Suitable for Remote Monitoring and Control

2.1 Current Status of Small Treatment Systems

2.2 Applicable Drinking Water Regulations

2.2.1 Disinfection Requirements for Surface Water

2.2.2 Disinfection Requirements for Groundwater

2.3 Treatment Technologies Used by Small Systems

2.3.1 Full-Scale Treatment Plants

2.3.2 Centrally Located Package Plants Filtration Membranes Granular Activated Carbon Adsorption Aeration

2.3.3 Point-of-Entry/Point-of-Use Devices

2.4 Amenability of Treatment Technologies

2.5 Two Example Processes

2.5.1 Groundwater Disinfection

2.5.2 Nanofiltration

2.6 References

3 Amenability of Water Quality and System Operating Parameters

3.1 Water Quality Parameters

3.1.1 Microbial Contaminants CT Method Tracer Tests

3.1.2 Turbidity Filters and Membranes Coagulation/Flocculation/Sedimentation Processes

3.1.3 pH Breakpoint Chlorination Corrosion Control Membrane Softening

3.1.4 Chemical Dose/Residual Concentration

3.1.5 Temperature Turbidity Monitoring Disinfection Membranes Adsorption

3.1.6 Total Organic Carbon Coagulation Chlorination

3.1.7 Trace Metals

3.1.8 Anions/Cations Activated Alumina Ion Exchange Membranes

3.1.9 Color Coagulation Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis Chemical Oxidation

3.1.10 Hardness Lime Softening Ion Exchange Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis

3.1.11 Total Dissolved Solids

3.1.12 Particle Counts

3.2 System Operating Parameters

3.2.1 Flowrate

3.2.2 Pressure

3.2.3 Electricity Usage

3.2.4 Finished Water Production

3.2.5 Wastewater Production

3.2.6 System Status

3.2.7 Hours of Operation

3.2.8 Level Measurements Chemical Feed Levels Production Water Tank Levels

3.3 Reference

4 COTS Water Quality Monitoring and Control Devices

4.1 Microbial Contaminant Monitors

4.2 Turbidity Sensors

4.3 pH Sensors

4.4 Chemical Dose/Residual Chlorine Monitors

4.5 Temperature Monitors

4.6 Total Organic Carbon Monitors

4.7 Trace Metals Sensors

4.8 Anion/Cation Monitors

4.9 Color Monitors

4.10 Hardness Monitors

4.11 Total Dissolved Solids/Conductivity Sensors

4.12 Particle-Counting Monitors

4.13 Multiparameter Probes

5 COTS System Operation Monitoring and Control Devices

5.1 Flowrate Sensors

5.1.1 Rotameters

5.1.2 Turbine or Paddlewheel Flowmeters

5.1.3 Vortex-Shedding Flowmeters

5.1.4 Magnetic Flowmeters

5.1.5 Differential-Pressure Flowmeters

5.1.6 Ultrasonic Doppler Flowmeters

5.2 Pressure Measurement Sensors

5.3 Finished Water and Wastewater Production Flowmeters/Totalizers

5.4 System Status Electronics

5.5 Monitoring Components for Hours of Operation

5.6 Level Measurement Sensors

5.6.1 Mechanical Cable/Float Devices

5.6.2 Magnetic Floats/Mechanical Reed Switch Systems

5.6.3 Rigid or Flexible Electrodes

5.6.4 Integrated Strain Gauge Pressure Transducers

5.6.5 Noncontact Sensors

5.6.6 Nonintrusive Level Sensors

5.6.7 Intrusive Radiofrequency Capacitance Sensors

5.7 Remote Telemetry System Pumps and Valves

5.7.1 RTS Pumps

5.7.2 RTS Valves

6 COTS Data Acquisition System Options

6.1 Overview of Data Acquisition Systems

6.2 Data Acquisition System Design and Component Selection

6.2.1 Sampling Rate

6.2.2 Signal Conditioning

6.2.3 Multiplexing

6.2.4 Range and Resolution

6.3 Computer Hardware

6.4 Driver Software

6.5 Dataloggers

6.6 Mounting Racks with I/O Modules

6.7 COTS Availability of Data Acquisition Systems

7 COTS Data Transmission Options

7.1 Overview of Data Transmission/Remote Telemetry Options

7.1.1 Hard-Wired Land-Based Telephones

7.1.2 Cellular Phones

7.1.3 RF Communication

7.1.4 Satellite Telecommunication Commercial Satellites Military Satellites

7.2 COTS Availability of Data Transmission/Remote Telemetry Options

7.2.1 POTS Telemetry

7.2.2 Cellular Phone Telemetry

7.2.3 Radiofrequency Telemetry

7.2.4 Satellite Telemetry

8 Selection Criteria

8.1 Water Quality Monitoring and Control Devices

8.1.1 Selection Criteria

8.1.2 Selecting Devices/Components Selecting Microbial Contaminant Monitors Selecting Turbidity Sensors Selecting pH Sensors Selecting Chemical Dose/Residual Chlorine Monitors Selecting Temperature Monitors Selecting Total Organic Carbon Monitors Selecting Trace Metals Sensors Selecting Anion/Cation Monitors Selecting Color Monitors Selecting Hardness Monitors Selecting Total Dissolved Solids/Conductivity Sensors Selecting Particle-Counting Monitors Selecting Multiparameter Probes

8.2 Process Monitoring and Control Devices

8.2.1 Selection Criteria

8.2.2 Selecting Process Parameter Devices/Components Selecting Flowrate Sensors Selecting Pressure Measurement Sensors Selecting Finished Water and Wastewater Production Flowmeters/Totalizers Selecting System Status Electronics Selecting Monitoring Components for Hours of Operation Selecting Level-Measurement Sensors Selecting Pumps and Valves

8.3 Data Acquisition Systems

8.3.1 Selection Criteria

8.3.2 An Example of a Data Acquisition System

8.4 Remote Telemetry System Options

8.4.1 Selection Criteria

8.4.2 Viable Telemetry Options

9 Research Needs

9.1 Microbial Monitoring

9.1.1 Immunodetection Methods BiorefractometerTM Polarization Interferometer Biosensor Flowthrough and One-Step Chromatographic Screening Assays Magnetic Tagging

9.1.2 Nucleic Acid-Based Techniques

9.1.3 Polymerase Chain Reaction

9.1.4 Biological Surrogate Indicators

9.1.5 Nonbiological Surrogate Indicators

9.2 Total Organic Carbon Monitoring

9.2.1 Optical and Fiber Optic Sensors

9.2.2 Microchip Sensors

9.3 Metals Monitoring

9.4 Color Monitoring

9.5 References


A Literature Search Strategy

B COTS Devices for Water Quality Monitoring and Control

C COTS Devices for System Operation Monitoring and Control

D COTS Data Acquisition Options

E COTS Data Transmission Systems

F Vendor List


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