An Odyssey in Learning and Perception documents a fifty-year intellectual expedition in the areas of learning and perceptionalways with an eye to combining them in a theory of perceptual learning and development, a theory that may be broadly applicable to humans and nonhumans, young and old.
In the field of psychology, beginning in the 1950s, Eleanor J. Gibson nearly single-handedly developed the field of perceptual learning with a series of brilliant studies that culminated in the seminal work, Perceptual Learning and Development . An Odyssey in Learning and Perception brings together Gibson's scientific papers, including difficult-to-find or previously unpublished work, along with classic studies in perception and action. Gibson introduces each paper to show why the research was undertaken and concludes each section with comments linking the findings to later developments. A personal essay touches on the questions and concerns that guided her research.
About the Author
Eleanor J. Gibson is Susan Linn Sage Professor of Psychology, Emeritus, Cornell University.
Table of ContentsSeries Foreword
Foreword by Elizabeth S. Spelke
I Experimental Psychology in the Thirties (1932-1942)
1 Bilateral Transfer of the Conditioned Response in the Human Subject, J. J. Gibson and G. Raffel. J. Exp. Psychol., 1932, 15, 416-421.
2 Retention and the Interpolated Task, with James J. Gibson. Ameri. J. Psychol., 1934, 46, 603-610.
3 Sensory Generalization with Voluntary Reactions. J. Exp. Psychol., 1939, 24, 237-253.
4 A Systematic Application of the Concepts of Generalization and Differentiation to Verbal Learning. Psychol. Review, 1940, 47, 196-299.
5 Retroactive Inhibition as a Function of Degree of Generalization between Tasks. J. Exp. Psychol., 1941, 28, 93-115.
Retrospect and Prospect: Are Theories Recycled?
II Comparative Research on Learning and Development (1952-1970)
6 The Role of Shock in Reinforcement. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 1952, 45, 18-30.
7 The Effect of Prolonged Exposure to Visually Presented Patterns on Learning to Discriminate Them, with R. D. Walk. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 1956, 49, 239-242.
8 The Effectiveness of Prolonged Exposure to Cutouts vs. Painted Patterns for Facilitation of Discrimination. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol., 1959, 52, 519-521.
9 Behavior of Light- and Dark-Reared Rats on a Visual Cliff, with R. D. Walk and T. J. Tighe. Science, 1957, 126, 80-81.
10 Development of Perception: Discrimination of Depth Compared with Discrimination of Graphic Symbols. Reprinted from J. C. Wright and J. Kagan (eds.), Basic Cognitive Processes in Children, Monogr. Soc. Res. Child Development, 1963, 28, No. 2 (Serial No. 86), 5-24.
11 The Development of Perception as an Adaptive Process, EleanorJ. Gibson. American Scientist, 1970, 58, 98-107.
Retrospect and Prospect: Comparative Psychology and Animal Cognition
III Perception: Psychophysics and Transformations (1954-1959)
12 The Effect of Training on Absolute Estimation of Distance over the Ground, with R. Bergman. J. Exp. Psychol., 1954, 473-482.
13 The Effect of Prior Training with a Scale of Distance on Absolute and Relative Judgments of Distance over Ground, with R. Bergman and J. Purdy. J. Exp. Psychol., 1955, 50, 97-105.
14 Distance Judgement by the Method of Fractionation, with J. Purdy. J. Exper. Psychol., 1955, 50, 374-380.
15 Continuous Perspective Transformations and the Perception of Rigid Motion, with J. J. Gibson. J. Exper. Psychol., 54, 129-138.
16 Motion Parallax as a Determinant of Perceived Depth, with J. J. Gibson, O. W. Smith, and H. Flock. J. Exper. Psychol., 1959, 58, 40-51.
Retrospect and Prospect: Psychopysics to Computation
IV Perceptual Learning (1955-1969)
17 Perceptual Learning: Differentiation or Enrichment?, with J. J. Gibson. Psychol. Rev., 1955, 62, 32-41.
Reply by L. Postman: Association Theory and Perceptual Learning. Psychol. Rev., 1955, 438-446.
What Is Learned in Perceptual Learning? A Reply to Professor Postman. Psychol. Rev., 1955, 62, 447-450.
18 Perceptual Learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 1963, 14, 29-56.
19 Perceptual Development and the Reduction of Uncertainty. In Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Psychology, 7-17, Moscow, 1966
20 Trends in Perceptual Development. Excerpts from Chapter 20 of Principles of Perceptual Learning and Development (pp. 450-472). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1969.
Retrospect and Prospect: The Coming of Age of Perceptual Development
V Years of Significance: Research on Reading (1965-1977)
21 Learning to Read. Science, 1965, 148, 1066-1072
22 A Developmental Study of Visual Search Behavior, with A. Yonas. Perception and Psychopysics, 1966, 1, 169-171.
23 Confusion Matrices for Graphic Patterns Obtained with a Latency Measure, with F. Schapiro and A. Yonas. Cornell University, 1968.
24 The Ontogeny of Reading. American Psychologist, 1970, 25, 136-143.
25 Perceptual Learning and the Theory of Word Perception. Cognitive Psychology, 1971, 2, 351-368.
26 How Perception Really Develops: A View from outside the Network. In D. Laberge and S. J. Samuels (eds.), Basic Processes in Reading: Perception and Comprehension. Hillsdale, N. J.: Erlbaum, 1977, 155-173.
Retrospect and Prospect: Perception, Cognition, or Both?
VI Perceptual Development from the Ecological Approach (1972 to the present)
27 The Senses as Information-Seeking Systems, with J. J. Gibson. (London) Times Literary Supplement, 1972, June 23, 711-712.
Seeing as Thinking: An Active Theory of Perception. R. Gregory. (London) Times Literary Supplement, 1972, June 23, 707-708.
28 Perception as a Foundation for Knowledge: Thoughts Inspired by Papers of Frailberg and Bellugi. Discussion prepared for the Lenneberg Symposium, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., May 1976.
29 Perception of Invariants by Five-Month-Old Infants: Differentiation of Two Types of Motion, with C. J. Owsley and J. Johnston.
30 Development of Knowledge of Visual-Tactual Affordances of Substance, with A. Walker. Child Development, 1984, 55, 453-460.
31 Excerpts from The Concept of Affordances in Development: The Renascence of Functionalism. In W. A. Collins (ed.), The Concept of Development. The Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology, Vol. 15. Hillsdale, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Assoc., 1982, 55-81.
32 Detection of the Traversability of Surfaces by Crawling and Walking Infants, with G. Riccio, M. A. Schmuckler, T. A. Stoffregen, D. Rosenberg, and J. Taormina. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1987, 13, 533-544.
33 Exploratory Behavior in the Development of Perceiving, Acting, and the Acquiring of Knowledge. Excerpts from Annual Review of Psychology, 1988, 39, 1-41.
Epilogue: Prospects for a New Approach to Perceptual Learning
What People are Saying About This
Eleanor Gibson is surely the most distinguished developmental psychologist in the world. Her work has transformed our conceptions of the origins of mental life.Ulric. Neisser, Robert W. Woodruff Professor of Psychology, Emory University
Eleanor Gibson is surely the most distinguished developmental psychologist in the world. Her work has transformed our conceptions of the origins of mental life. Ulric. Neisser , Robert W. Woodruff Professor of Psychology, Emory University
Eleanor Gibson is surely the most distinguished developmental psychologist in the world. Her work has transformed our conceptions of the origins of mental life.