Nutritional Evaluation of Food Processing

Nutritional Evaluation of Food Processing

by Endel Karmas, Robert S. Harris

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988)

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Dramatic changes in the attitudes toward human nutrition have taken place dur­ ing the past decade. Food-related and medical professionals as well as consumers are now, more than ever before, aware of and concerned about diet, nutrition, and the beneficial and deleterious effects of food processing upon nutrients. The old saying "We are what we eat" is still relevant. Nutritious food will contribute greatly to consumers' good health and ultimately reduce medical bills. Food processing is essential to maintaining our food reserves from one harvest to another, thus letting us serve our daily meals regularly. If food processing is defined as including all treatments of foodstuffs from harvest to consumption, then more than 95% of our food may be considered as processed. In most cases, food processing and storage cause some reduction in the nutritional value of foods. Advances in food science and food technology have resulted in an increase in nu­ trient retention after processing. In addition, today's consumer better understands how to avoid excessive nutrient losses during food preparation. The information presented in this completely revised reference and textbook will help the reader to understand better the relationship between food processing and nutrient retention. The authors' scholarly contributions are greatly appreciated.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789401170321
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Publication date: 06/23/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988
Pages: 786
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.06(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1 General Discussion on the Stability of Nutrients.- 2 The Major Food Groups, Their Nutrient Content, and Principles of Food Processing.- The Major Food Groups and Their Nutrient Content.- The Principles of Food Processing.- References.- 2 Nutrients in Food-Raw and Processed.- 3 Effects of Agricultural Practices, Handling, Processing, and Storage on Vegetables.- Major Chemical Components of Vegetables and Their Nutritional Significance.- Effects of Agricultural Practices on Nutritional Composition of Vegetables.- Effects of Harvesting, Handling, and Storage on Nutritional Composition of Vegetables.- References.- 4 Effects of Agricultural Practices, Handling, Processing, and Storage on Fruits.- Agricultural Practices.- Harvesting and Handling.- Holding and Storage Conditions.- References.- 5 Effects of Agricultural Practices, Handling, Processing, and Storage on Cereals.- Cereal Composition.- Wheat.- Corn.- Rice.- Oats.- Barley.- Sorghum.- Triticale.- References.- 6 Effects of Agricultural Practices, Handling, Processing, and Storage on Legumes and Oilseeds.- Edible Legumes.- Oilseeds.- References.- 7 Effects of Agricultural Practices, Handling, Processing, and Storage on Meat.- World Meat Dietary Patterns.- Overview of Nutrients in Meat Products.- Genetics.- Influence of Age, Season, Sex, Type, and Grade.- Level of Nutrition.- Fat in the Diet.- Vitamins.- Minerals.- Hormones.- Antibiotics.- Insecticides.- Slaughter and Processing.- Salting and Curing.- Storage.- Meeting Nutritional Needs.- Bioavailability.- The Relationship of Meat to Health Problems.- Processing of Meat.- Summary.- References.- 8 Effects of Agricultural Practices on Milk and Dairy Products.- Milk Fat Composition.- Milk Protein.- Minerals and Trace Elements in Milk.- Vitamins in Milk.- Effect of Processing and Storage.- References.- 9 Effects of Agricultural Practices on Poultry and Eggs.- Poultry Meat.- Effect of Production Factors.- Effect of Processing and Storage.- Effect of Management Systems.- Composition of Mechanically Deboned Poultry Meat.- Effect of Cooking.- Eggs.- Effect of Production Factors.- Effect of Processing and Storage.- Effect of Cooking.- References.- 10 Effects of Handling, Processing, and Storage on Fish and Shellfish.- Baseline Information.- Harvesting and Handling of Fresh Seafood.- Preservation Techniques.- References.- 3 Effects of Commercial Processing and Storage on Nutrients.- 11 Effects of Freeze Preservation on Nutrients.- Vegetables.- Fruits.- Animal Tissues.- Dairy Products and Margarine.- Miscellaneous Observations.- Discussion.- References.- 12 Effects of Heat Processing on Nutrients.- Definition of Blanching, Pasteurization, and Sterilization.- General Reviews on the Effects of Processing on Nutrients.- Effect of Heat on Nutrients.- Optimization of Thermal Processes for Nutrient Retention.- Effect of Blanching Methods on Nutrients.- Storage of Blanched Foods.- Effect of Pasteurization Methods on Nutrients.- Storage of Pasteurized Foods.- Effect of Commercial Sterilization Methods on Nutrients.- Storage of Commercially Sterile Foods.- Summary.- References.- 13 Effects of Baking on Nutrients.- Protein and Amino Acids.- Vitamins.- Minerals.- Fats and Carbohydrates.- Conclusions.- References.- 14 Effects of Extrusion Processing on Nutrients.- Extrusion Processing.- Processing Conditions.- Starch Digestibility.- Blended Foods.- Dietary Fiber.- Extruded Whole Bean Flour.- Vitamin Stability.- Amino Acid Loss.- Textured Protein.- References.- 15 Effects of Moisture Removal on Nutrients.- Chemical Kinetics and Moisture Removal.- Concentration.- Dehydration.- Nutrient Losses.- Conclusion.- References.- 16 Effects of Fermentation on the Nutritional Properties of Food.- Characterization of Nutrient Changes in Fermented Foods.- Effect of Fermentation on the Energy Content of Food.- Lactic Acid Isomers in Food Fermentations.- Effects of Fermentation on Protein Content, Quality, and Availability.- Effects of Fermentation on Changes in Vitamins.- Removal of Phytic Acid by Fermentation.- Outlook.- References.- 17 Effects of Treatment with Food Additives on Nutrients.- Additives Detrimental to Nutrients.- Additives Beneficial to Nutrients.- References.- 18 Use of Ionizing Radiation to Preserve Food.- Types of Radiation.- Hazards.- Packaging.- Carbohydrates.- Lipids.- Proteins.- Vitamins.- Conclusions.- Glossary of Some Basic Terms and Concepts.- Acknowledgment.- References.- 19 Stability of Nutrients during Storage of Processed Foods.- Historical Basis of Stabilization of Foods by Packaging.- Scientific Basis of Nutrient Retention in Packaged Foods.- Packaging Materials.- Effects of Storage Conditions on Nutrient Content.- References.- 4 Effects of Preparation and Service of Food on Nutrients.- 20 Effects of Food Preparation Procedures in Nutrient Retention with Emphasis on Foodservice Practices.- Garden Fresh versus Market Fresh.- Losses during Cooking.- Summary.- References.- 21 Effects of Home Food Preparation Practices on Nutrient Content of Foods.- Changing Food Habits.- Storage.- Losses Due to Preparation Procedures.- Effects of Cooking.- Conclusion.- References.- 5 Nutrification, Legal Aspects, and Nutrient Analysis.- 22 Addition of Vitamins, Minerals, and Amino Acids to Foods.- Stability.- Bioavailability.- Technology of Addition.- Minerals.- Amino Acids.- References.- 23 Protein Complementation of Foods.- Protein Quality Improvement.- Mixtures of Proteins Giving Maximum Protein Quality.- Amino Acid Patterns Resulting from Optimum Protein Quality Mixtures.- Applications.- References.- 24 Improving the Nutritional Quality of Vegetables through Plant Breeding.- Common Bean: Phaseolus vulgaris.- Pea: Pisum sativum.- Broad Bean: Vicia faba.- Cowpea and Yardlong Bean: Vigna unguiculata spp. unguiculata and V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis.- Mung Bean and Black Gram: Vigna radiata and V. mungo.- Lupines: Lupinus albinus, L. angustifolius, L. luteus, and L. mutabilis.- Pigeon Pea: Cajanus cajan.- Chickpea: Cicer arietinum.- Hyacinth Bean: Dolichos lablab.- Winged Bean: Psophocarpus tetragonolobus.- Tomato: Lycopersicon esculentum.- Cucumber and Bitter Gourd: Cucumis sativa and Momordica charantia.- Chili: Capsicum annum.- Lettuce: Lactuca sativa.- Spinach and Indian Chard: Spinacia sativa and Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis 669 Celery and Parsley: Apium graveolens and Petroselinum hortense.- Celosia: Celosia argentea.- Brassica spp..- Turnip and Rutabaga: Brassica rapa and B. napus.- Chinese Cabbage: Brassica rapa or campes tris (chinensis and pekinensis Groups).- Oilseed Rape and Mustard: Brassica napus and B. campestris or rapa.- Potato: Solanum tuberosum.- Sweet Potato: Ipomoea batatas.- Cassava: Manihot esculenta.- Carrot: Daucuscarota.- Assessing Breeding Priorities.- References.- 25 The Role of the United States Government in Regulating the Nutritional Value of the Food Supply.- History.- Food Standards Amendments.- The Food Additives Amendment.- Vitamin and Mineral Supplements Amendment.- The Infant Formula Act.- Relationship of the FFD&C Act to the Nutritional Quality of Foods.- References.- 26 The Contribution of Consumption of Processed Food to Nutrient Intake Status in the united States.- Food Processing, Nutrient Intake, and Health Status.- Population Nutrient Intake Status.- Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 27 Methodology for Nutrient Analysis.- Vitamin Assay Methods.- Biological Activity and Bioavailability.- Summary.- References.- 28 Nutrient Data Banks for Nutrient Evaluation in Foods.- Users of Food Composition Data.- Nutrient Data Base Systems.- Designs of a Nutrient Data Base System.- Nutrition Evaluation.- References.

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