Women remain dramatically underrepresented in elective office, including in entry-level political offices. While they enjoy the freedom to stand for office and therefore have an equal legal footing with men, this persistent gender imbalance raises pressing questions about democratic legitimacy, the inclusivity of American politics, and the quality of political representation. The reasons for women's underrepresentation remain the subject of much debate. One explanationthat the United States lacks sufficient openings for political newcomershas become less compelling in recent years, as states that have adopted term limits have not seen the expected gains in women's office holding. Other accounts about candidate scarcity, gender inequalities in society, and the lingering effects of gendered socialization have some merit; however, these accounts still fail to explain the relatively low numbers.
Drawing upon original surveys conducted in 1981 and 2008 by the Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP) of women state legislators across all fifty states, and follow-up interviews after the 2008 survey, the authors find that gender differences in pathways to the legislatures, first evident in 1981, have been surprisingly persistent over time. They find that, while the ambition framework better explains men's decisions to run for office, a relationally embedded model of candidate emergence better captures women's decision-making, with women's decisions more often influenced by the encouragement and support of parties, organizations, and family members.
By rethinking the nature of women's representation, this study calls for a reorientation of academic research on women's election to office and provides insight into new strategies for political practitioners concerned about women's political equality.
|Publisher:||Oxford University Press, USA|
|Edition description:||New Edition|
|Product dimensions:||9.00(w) x 6.10(h) x 0.50(d)|
About the Author
Susan J. Carroll is Professor of Political Science and Women's and Gender Studies and Senior Scholar at the Center for American Women and Politics at Rutgers University. In 2014 Carroll was awarded the Lifetime Contribution to Political Studies Award by the Political Studies Association.
Kira Sanbonmatsu is Professor of Political Science and Senior Scholar at the Center for American Women and Politics at Rutgers University.
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Chapter 1 Rethinking Candidate Emergence
Chapter 2 Can More Women Run? Reevaluating Pathways to Office
Chapter 3 Gender and the Decision to Run for Office
Chapter 4 Republican Women State Legislators: Falling Behind
Chapter 5 Democratic Women State Legislators: On the Rise
Chapter 6 The Future of Women's Officeholding