Leonardo da Vinci was one of history's true geniuses, equally brilliant as an artist, scientist, and mathematician. Readers of The Da Vinci Code were given a glimpse of the mysterious connections between math, science, and Leonardo's art. Math and the Mona Lisa picks up where The Da Vinci Code left off, illuminating Leonardo's life and work to uncover connections that, until now, have been known only to scholars.
Bülent Atalay, a distinguished scientist and artist, examines the science and mathematics that underlie Leonardo's work, paying special attention to the proportions, patterns, shapes, and symmetries that scientists and mathematicians have also identified in nature. Following Leonardo's own unique model, Atalay searches for the internal dynamics of art and science, revealing to us the deep unity of the two cultures. He provides a broad overview of the development of science from the dawn of civilization to today's quantum mechanics. From this base of information, Atalay offers a fascinating view into Leonardo's restless intellect and modus operandi, allowing us to see the source of his ideas and to appreciate his art from a new perspective.
|Publisher:||Smithsonian Institution Press|
|Product dimensions:||5.20(w) x 8.20(h) x 0.90(d)|
About the Author
Bülent Atalay, a professor of physics at Mary Washington College, an adjunct professor at the University of Virginia, and a member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, is also an accomplished artist whose lithographs have been published in Lands of Washington and Oxford and the English Countryside. He lives in Virginia.
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Math and the Mona LisaThe Art and Science of Leonardo da Vinci
By Bulent Atalay
HarperCollins Publishers, Inc.Copyright © 2006 Bulent Atalay
All right reserved.
A Life Well Spent
Late medieval and early Renaissance Italy witnessed many changes, including a revival of the mercantile economy, the emergence of a vernacular literature, and the first serious efforts to recover the classical tradition of learning. Feudalism, with the landed nobility controlling the lives and destinies of the populace, began to lose its grip. The Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic Church increasingly failed to provide social and political stability. National monarchies, especially those of France and England, rose in importance, and in Italy, the city-state became the preferred form of political organization. One city-state, Florence, located in north central Italy, took the lead in projecting the new indefatigable spirit of humanism, a return to the classical ideal of man being the measure of all things; it became the incontestable intellectual capital of Renaissance Europe. The city's preeminence was displayed in literature -- with Petrarch, Dante, and Boccaccio -- but most prominently in painting, sculpture, and architecture. The brilliant painter Giotto appeared early in this remarkable period. The next hundredyears gave rise to the artist Masaccio and architects Alberti and Brunelleschi; then, toward the end of the fifteenth century, the matchless trio of Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael burst onto the scene.
An explosive catalyst for the change was the invention, by Johannes Gutenberg, of the printed book in 1455.1 Before the print revolution, Europe's libraries contained 30,000 volumes. Within fifty years the number of books had increased to three million. The Renaissance also saw the European voyages of discovery, resulting in dramatic expansion in the size of the known world. The Protestant Reformation ignited further intellectual commotion, with an attendant eruption of various dissident sects. Finally, the Renaissance artist, who saw the need to describe nature in the way it really presented itself and not in some idealized or ecclesiastically dictated way, was instrumental in the launching of modern science.
The changing intellectual milieu of the Renaissance spread quickly to Rome, Milan, and Venice. One ingredient for its accelerated development in Italy came with the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks in 1453. A number of significant Byzantine scholars migrated to Italy at the invitation of the Italian humanists, among them, Theodore Gaza, John Argyropoulos, and the most influential of all, Demetrius Chalcondyles. These scholars brought with them the first serious efforts to recover the classical tradition of learning and afforded Italian humanists access to the classic Greek texts and manuscripts preserved in Constantinople.
Any discussion on the ascent of civilization must necessarily include the rise of the university. Toward the end of the eleventh century the first of the studia generalia, precursors of universities,2 had appeared in Bologna. In the twelfth century others began in Paris, Oxford, Modena, and Parma, and in the thirteenth century in Cambridge, Padua, Siena, Salamanca, Perugia, and Palermo. The universities did not give rise to the Renaissance, but they benefitted significantly from it. While the Italian universities were the first to be founded in Europe they were the last to be liberated from the scholastic tradition grounded in the works of Aristotle. Their doctrine was salutary for the rebirth of rigorous intellectual discourse in the manner of the ancient philosophers, but it focused mostly on theological issues in a doctrinaire way. Thus the early emergence of universities in Italy with their scholastic tradition has to be regarded as a red herring for the development of science in Italy.3
Not much is known about Leonardo da Vinci's personal life. According to his earliest biographer, Giorgio Vasari, he was an uncommonly handsome man, well-built, full of charm and grace, but he left no definitive image of himself. One reasonable candidate for a Leonardo likeness is a red chalk drawing, found in Turin in the mid-nineteenth century and believed by many to be a self-portrait of Leonardo in his old age. There is a mesmerizing quality in the eyes, simultaneously exuding wisdom, sadness, and acute intelligence that only a truly insightful psychologist-artist could capture (Plate 1). Another possible likeness, also from his mature years, is a colored chalk profile portrait thought to be by one of his pupils; David Alan Brown, of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., makes a compelling case for the subject of this work.
Leonardo lived his sixty-seven years in a time of frequent wars and political and social upheaval, but also in a period of artistic and intellectual ferment unrivaled since the Golden Age of Greece. He embodied the Renaissance spirit. In his own time he was known as II Fiorentino (the Florentine), although by the late sixteenth century Giorgio Vasari was already referring to him as "Leonardo da Vinci."
It is not known exactly where Leonardo was born, but convincing arguments have been offered by a number of biographers that he was born on April 15, 1452, in the Tuscan village of Anchiano, near the town of Vinci, on the outskirts of Florence. He was the illegitimate son of Ser Piero di Antonio da Vinci and a peasant girl named Caterina. The young couple never married, the boy living the first five years of his life with his mother, grandmother, and a peasant from Anchiano, whom the mother eventually did marry. Meanwhile, Ser Piero married Donna Albieri, a woman of his own station, and only when he found that his wife was infertile did he seek and gain guardianship of Leonardo.
During the next ten years the boy lived in his father's family home in Vinci, never gaining formal adoption or the benefit of the respected family name. There have been speculations by a number of authors -- including Sigmund Freud -- that in the home of his mother and maternal grandmother, and later in the home of his stepmother and step-grandmother, the boy perhaps received attention bordering on the worshipful. These factors have been offered as possible ingredients for his unusual psyche, his exquisite sensitivity, superhuman drive, surpassing intelligence, and probable homosexuality -- although this is all conjecture.
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Table of Contents
1 Leonardo Fiorentino: A Life Well Spent 1
2 The Confluence of Science and Art 13
3 Painting by Numbers 26
4 The Nature of Science 53
5 The Nature of Art 58
6 The Art of Nature 89
7 The Science of Art 112
8 The Eye of the Beholder and the Eye of the Beheld 151
9 Leonardo, Part-Time Artist 163
10 The Manuscripts of the Consummate Scientist 185
11 Unifying the Physics of Heaven and Earth 213
12 The Greatest Collective Piece of Art of the Twentieth Century 245
13 Bridging the Cultural Divide 269
Bibliographical Essay 281
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
Deeply rooted in mathematical principles - almost painfully so - this book really appeals only to people who love math and stories about math. For the math-illiterate, this book was a painfully slow read, and I must confess that I never really got into the book. A great premise, done in such a heavy way that it may be inaccessible to many people, which is a shame.
While he does write about Leonardo, the Rennaissance, etc., the title assumes the book is solely based on the works of the artist. Instead, what you get is redundancy and egotism on the part of the author. This guy just enjoyed listening to himself talk. This book is best for Math students, not Art History students.
Finally, finally as though waiting to open a treasure, Bulent Atalay brings to the world through his genius, the beautiful marriage of science and art in his book, Math and the Mona Lisa. He achieves his purpose of introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of symmetries and shapes inherent in the nature of the universe and as seen through science and viewed in art. The reader travels this journey of understanding with Leonardo da Vinci as the guide teaching us the exquisite aesthetics of mathematical principles. As these principles are innate in all human consciousness this book is a must read for all. The world can be grateful for Math and the Mona Lisa as it inspires all of humanity to see the wisdom and perfection that underlies the structure of the universe, especially at this juncture in history when there appears to be chaos everywhere. As an artist who uses these universal principles in the structure of my work, I am especially grateful.