Kinyras: The Divine Lyre

Kinyras: The Divine Lyre


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Kinyras, in Greco-Roman sources, is the central culture-hero of early Cyprus: legendary king, metallurge, Agamemnon’s (faithless) ally, Aphrodite’s priest, father of Myrrha and Adonis, rival of Apollo, ancestor of the Paphian priest-kings, and much more. Kinyras increased in depth and complexity with the demonstration in 1968 that Kinnaru—the divinized temple-lyre—was venerated at Ugarit, an important Late Bronze Age city just opposite Cyprus on the Syrian coast. John Curtis Franklin seeks to harmonize Kinyras as a mythological symbol of pre-Greek Cyprus with what is known of ritual music and deified instruments in the Bronze Age Near East, using evidence going back to early Mesopotamia. Franklin addresses issues of ethnicity and identity; migration and colonization, especially the Aegean diaspora to Cyprus, Cilicia, and Philistia in the Early Iron Age; cultural interface of Hellenic, Eteocypriot, and Levantine groups on Cyprus; early Greek poetics, epic memory, and myth-making; performance traditions and music archaeology; royal ideology and ritual poetics; and a host of specific philological and historical issues arising from the collation of classical and Near Eastern sources.

Kinyras includes a vital background study of divinized balang-harps in Mesopotamia by Wolfgang Heimpel. This paperback edition contains minor corrections, while retaining the foldout maps of the original hardback edition as spreads, alongside illustrations and artwork by Glynnis Fawkes.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780674972322
Publisher: Harvard
Publication date: 07/31/2017
Series: Hellenic Studies Series , #70
Pages: 834
Sales rank: 1,203,945
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x (d)

About the Author

John Curtis Franklin is Associate Professor of Classics at the University of Vermont.

Wolfgang Heimpel is Professor Emeritus of Near Eastern Studies at the University of California, Berkeley.

Table of Contents

List of Figures xiii

Preface xix

Conventions and Abbreviations xxv


1 Kinyras and Kinnaru 1

Kinyras of Cyprus 1

The Return of Kinnaru 4

The Crux 5

Plan of This Study and Preliminary Conclusions 7

Pre-Greek, Greek, and Phoenician Cyprus 10

Part 1 The Cult of Kinnaru

2 Instrument Gods and Musician Kings in Early Mesopotamia 19

Divinized Instruments 19

Gudea and the Balang-Gods of Ningirsu 26

Shulgi and the Royal Ideal of Music 33

Lovely Lyrics for Inanna 37

Music and Seven-Magic 40

Conclusion 41

3 The Knr 43

Jubal: Looking Back from Israel 43

Identifying the Knr 46

The Lexical Evidence 53

The Problems of Stringing and Tuning 57

Limits of the Investigation 60

4 Starting at Ebla 63

The City and Its Music 63

Kinnarum and Balang 65

Lamentation and Royal Ancestor Cult 67

Divine Lyre at Ebla? 71

5 Mari and the Amorite Age 73

The City and Its Music 73

The Kinnaru at Mari 76

The Amorite Connection 80

Divine Instruments and the Amorite World 83

Conclusion 87

6 Peripherals, Hybrids, Cognates 89

The 'Inanna-Instrument' and Hittite Royal Ritual 89

The Syro-Hurrian Sphere 96

'Asiatic' Lyres in Bronze Age Egypt 104

7 Kinnaru of Ugarit 113

The King and His Musicians 113

More about Kinnaru 119

Praising Baal 125

Bow and Lyre in the Tale of Aqhat 131

Rap'iu, Kinnaru, and the Eternal Power of Music 134

Silence of Kinnaru 141

Isaiah and the Lyres of the Rephaim 146

Conclusion 147

8 David and the Divine Lyre 149

David, Solomon, and the Ideals of Great Kingship 150

Musical Management in the First Temple 155

The Kinnor and the Divine Lyre 158

King, Kinnor, and the "Spirit of God" 165

Performing the Divine Lyre 167

Sweet Psalmist of Israel: David's Lyric Legacy 174

Part 2 Kinyras on Cyprus

9 Kinyras the Kinyrist 187

The Etymology of Kinyras 187

The Conflict with Apollo 189

Outplaying Orpheus and Tharnyris 192

The 'Greek' Kinýra 194

"Our Kenyristes Apollo": Playing the Kinýra on Cyprus 203

Lost in Translation: Kinýra at the Syro-Levantine interface 213

Conclusion 216

10 Praising Kinyras 219

Pindar and the Example of Kinyras 219

The Love of Apollo 226

Singing 'about' Kinyras 231

Caught in the Act: Two Model Shrines 236

11 Lyric Landscapes of Early Cyprus 241

The Current Picture 241

A Lost 'Daughter of Kinyras' in the Cyprus Museum 245

Music, Memory, and the Aegean Diaspora 250

Cypriot Lyres between East and West 253

Ethnicity and Musical identity in the Cypro-Phoenician Bowls 258

The Case for Second-Millennium Adaptation of Kinýra 272

Conclusion 276

12 Kinyras the Lamenter 279

Kinyras and His Cult Family 280

Between Song and Silence 291

The Cypriot Linos-Song 304

Phoinix Kinyrízon 316

Epilogue: The Antinoos Lament from Kourion 318

13 The Talents of Kinyras 321

Great Kingship 321

Metallurge and Potter 324

Kinyras the Mariner 326

Oilman and Parfumeur 330

The Virtuous Monarch 333

Conclusion 335

14 Restringing Kinyras 337

Aegean Foundation Legends and Epic Homecomings 337

Kinyras, Dmetor, and the Changing States of Cyprus 342

Liar King: The Terracotta Fleet and the Curse of Agamemnon 343

The Unthroning of Kinyras 346

Kinyras and Pre-Greek Social Topography 349

Salamis: Euagoras, Teukros, and the Daughter of Kinyras 351

Paphos: Agapenor, Laodike, and the Arcadian Connection 359

Conclusion 368

15 Crossing the Water 371

Alashiya and the Mainland Cults 371

Importing the Divine Lyre 380

Music and the Harmonious Realm 383

From Divine Lyre to Culture-Hero 392

16 The Kinyradai of Paphos 401

Tacitus and the Memories of the Paphian Priesthood 401

Nikokles and the Kinyrad Legacy 407

The Kinyradai in Hellenistic and Roman Times 417

Sons of the Kinýra 421

Part 3 Kinyras and the Lands Around Cyprus

17 Kinyras at Pylos 427

Kinyras and the Priests 427

Naming Kinyras in Greek 432

Kinyras the Shipwright 436

A Kinyras Complex 438

18 The Melding of Kinyras and Kothar 443

Kothar and Kinnaru 443

Philo of Byblos: Khousor and His Retiring Twin 445

Étienne de Lusignan: Cinaras and His Retiring Twin 452

The Craftsman-Musician Twins Mytheme 453

Confounded Lyres? 456

19 Kinyras, Kothar, and the Passage from Byblos 459

Kinyras, Kinnaru, and the Canaanite Shift 459

Lucian: Kinyras at Aphaka 461

Kinyras and Theias 466

Ps.-Melito: Kauthar at Aphaka 468

Goddess, King, and Copper 473

The Cypro-Byblian Interface 479

Ritual Lamentation and the 'Damu' of Byblos 482

Conclusion 486

20 Kinyras at Sidon? The Strange Affair of Abdalonymos 489

21 Syro-Cilician Approaches 495

Aoios and Paphos: Two Cilician Crossings 498

Solar Gods, Sandokos, and the Syrian Descent 504

The Egyptian Detour 512

Theios Aoidos: The Lyre-Player Seals 517


A A Note on 'Balang' in the Gudea Cylinders 531

B Ptolemy Khennos as a Source for the Contest of Kinyras and Apollo 535

C Horace, Cinara, and the Syrian Musiciennes of Rome 537

D Kinyrízein: The View from Stoudios 539

E The 'Lost Site' of Kinyreia 545

F Theodontius: Another Cilician Kinyras? 549

G Étienne de Lusignan and the 'God Cinaras' 557

Balang-Gods: A Study Wolfgang Heimpel 571

Bibliography 633

Index Locorum 715

General Index 739

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