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Kant and the Exact Sciences

Kant and the Exact Sciences

by Michael Friedman
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Kant sought throughout his life to provide a philosophy adequate to the sciences of his time—especially Euclidean geometry and Newtonian physics. In this new book, Michael Friedman argues that Kant's continuing efforts to find a metaphysics that could provide a foundation for the sciences is of the utmost importance in understanding the development of his philosophical thought from its earliest beginnings in the thesis of 1747, through the Critique of Pure Reason, to his last unpublished writings in the Opus postumum.

Previous commentators on Kant have typically minimized these efforts because the sciences in question have since been outmoded. Friedman argues that, on the contrary, Kant's philosophy is shaped by extraordinarily deep insight into the foundations of the exact sciences as he found them, and that this represents one of the greatest strengths of his philosophy. Friedman examines Kant's engagement with geometry, arithmetic and algebra, the foundations of mechanics, and the law of gravitation in Part One. He then devotes Part Two to the Opus postumum, showing how Kant's need to come to terms with developments in the physics of heat and in chemistry formed a primary motive for his projected Transition from the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science to Physics.

Kant and the Exact Sciences is a book of high scholarly achievement, argued with impressive power. It represents a great advance in our understanding of Kant's philosophy of science.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780674500365
Publisher: Harvard
Publication date: 08/19/1998
Edition description: Reissue
Pages: 378
Product dimensions: 6.12(w) x 9.25(h) x (d)

About the Author

Michael Friedman is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Illinois, Chicago, and the author of Foundations of Space-Time Theories, which won the Machette Prize of the American Philosophical Association and was also named among the best books of the year by the New York Times.

Table of Contents


Introduction: Metaphysics and Exact Science in the Evolution of Kant's Thought


1. Geometry

2. Concepts and Intuitions in the Mathematical Sciences

3. Metaphysical Foundations of Newtonian Science

4. Space, the Understanding, and the Law of Gravitation: Prolegomena § 38


5. Transition from the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science to Physics

I The Transition Project and the Metaphysical Foundations
II The Transition Project and Reflective Judgement
III The Chemical Revolution
IV The Aether-Deduction
V The Fate of the Aether-Deduction

References and Translations for Kant's Writings

General Bibliography


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