It is almost axiomatic that an explosive increase in knowledge and interest concerning host immune defense mechanisms and the immune response system in general is occurring. Many new developments are evident at the interphase between the areas of immunology, infectious diseases, and host defenses to microorganisms. It is now widely rec ognized that a functioning host immune defense system consists of a variety of lymphoid cells. These include effector and affector cells consisting of both Band T cells and their progeny. Mononuclear phago cytes which are widely distributed throughout the body are also intimately involved in these processes. These cells are involved not only in the clearance of particulate matter including bacteria, viruses and fungi, but also presumably in host defense against neo plasia. Among the many triumphs of the biological revolution over the past decade or so is the rapidly developing understanding of how these cells and their products, including antibody, lymphokines, monokines, etc. , function and interact. It is now recognized that although the immune defense system is involved in defense against infectious agents, it is also now be coming quite clear that many infectious agents, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, as well as their products, can interact with the immune response system. For example, it has been long recognized that many of the "adjuvants" which enhance the immune responses in nonspecific ways are derived from microorganisms. Microbial products have marked effects on the immume response system.
Table of ContentsMicrobial Adjuvants and Immume Responsiveness.- Bi-Directional Macrophage-Lymphocyte Interactions Modulate Immune Responses.- The Influence of Bacterial Products on Cyclic Nucleotide Metabolism of Lymphocytes.- Regulatory Effects of LPS and Cholera Toxin on Immunity.- The Induction of Immume Suppression by Bacterial Products.- Cyclic Nucleotides and Immune Suppression.- The Role of Cyclic Nucleotides in the Regulation of Immune Responses by Bacterial Products 28.- References.- Genetic Control of Murine Resistance of Salmonellatyphimurium Infection.- The Ity Locus.- The Lps Locus.- The Xid Locus.- Discussion.- References.- Effects of Streptococcal Components on Immunity.- Materials and Methods.- Persuit of the Isolation and Characterization of the Immunosuppressant Activity.- Effect of Membrane Preparations on Lymphocyte Functions.- References.- Modulation of Suppressor T-Cells by Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin.- Abstract.- Materials and Methods.- Results and Discussion.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Specificity of Suppressor T Cells Activated During the Immune Response to Type III Pneumococcal Polysaccharide.- Abstract.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- Effects of Staphylococcal Cell Wall Products on Immunity.- Capsule.- Clumping Factor.- Protein A.- Teichoic Acid and Peptidoglycan.- Conclusions and Perspectives.- Acknowledgements.- References.- Immunomodulation by Corynebacteriumparvum.- Immunomodulation by BCG and Synthetic Bacterial-like Adjuvants.- Immunostimulation by LPS and its Derivatives.- Induction fo Immunomodulatory Factors by LPS and Nontoxic Derivatives.- Abstract.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- Acknowledgement.- References.- Ribosomal Vaccines as Immunomodulators.- Materials and Methods.- Discussion.- Acknowledgement.- References.- The Effects of Endotoxin on Macrophages and T-Lymphocytes.- Immunomodulating and Related Biological Activities of Bacterial Cell Walls and Their Components, Enzymatically Prepared or Synthesized.- Background of our Studies.- General Remarks on Chemical and Biological Properties of Bacterial Cell Walls and Their Components.- Test Specimen of Cell Walls and Related Compounds.- Biological Activities Detected InVivo Assay.- Biological Activities Assayed InVitro.- Summary.- References.- Pertussis Induced Immunomodulation.- Materials and Methods.- Results.- Discussion.- References.- Role of Activated Macrophage Superoxide Anions and Hydrogen Peroxide in Immume Suppression.