For much of the twentieth century Brazil enjoyed an international reputation as a racial democracy, but that image has been largely undermined in recent decades by research suggesting the existence of widespread racial inequality. George Reid Andrews provides the first thoroughly documented history of Brazilian racial inequality from the abolition of slavery in 1888 up to the late 1980s, showing how economic, social, and political changes in Brazil during the last one hundred years have shaped race relations.
No laws of segregation or apartheid exist in Brazil, but by looking carefully at government policies, data on employment, mainstream and Afro-Brazilian newspapers, and a variety of other sources, Andrews traces pervasive discrimination against Afro-Brazilians over time. He draws his evidence from the country s largest and most economically important state, Sao Paulo, showing how race relations were affected by its transformation from a plantation-based economy to South America s most urban, industrialized society.
The book focuses first on Afro-Brazilians' entry into the agricultural and urban working class after the abolition of slavery. This transition, Andrews argues, was seriously hampered by state policies giving the many European immigrants of the period preference over black workers. As immigration declined and these policies were overturned in the late 1920s, black laborers began to be employed in agriculture and industry on nearly equal terms with whites. Andrews then surveys efforts of blacks to move into the middle class during the 1900s. He finds that informal racial solidarity among middle-class whites has tended to exclude Afro-Brazilians from the professions and other white-collar jobs.
Andrews traces how discrimination throughout the century led Afro-Brazilians to mobilize, first through the antislavery movement of the 1880s, then through such social and political organizations of the 1920s and 1930s as the Brazilian Black Front, and finally through the anti-racism movements of the 1970s and 1980s. These recent movements have provoked much debate among Brazilians over their national image as a racial democracy. It remains to be seen, Andrews concludes, whether that debate will result in increased opportunities for black Brazilians.
Winner of the 1993 Arthur P. Whitaker Prize"
|Publisher:||University of Wisconsin Press|
|Product dimensions:||8.90(w) x 5.90(h) x 0.80(d)|
About the Author
Michael Norman is an emeritus professor of journalism at the University of WisconsinRiver Falls. His many books include six other collections of American supernatural stories, including Haunted Wisconsin, also published by the University of Wisconsin Press.
Table of Contents
Preface to the Second Edition Illinois The Girl on Sheridan Road (Lake Forest) Resurrection Mary (Chicago) Devil Baby (Chicago) The Telltale Hand (Chicago) Red Rose (Chicago) The Attic (Equality) Cave Dwellers (Burton) To Do Good (Kingston) The Devil’s Bake Oven (Grand Tower) Old Man Lakey (McLeansboro) The Reincarnation of Mary Roff (Watseka) Lincoln and the Supernatural (Springfield) Indiana Diana of the Dunes (Indiana Dunes State Park) The Haunting of Hannah House (Indianapolis) The Vigil (Terre Haute) One of the Family (Evansville) Tippecanoe and Tecumseh, Too (Warren County) Moody’s Light (Rensselaer) The Stump (Bloomington) Iowa Gone Too Soon (Southeast Iowa) The Guttenberg Poltergeist (Guttenberg) Mildred Hedges (Indianola) The Man in the Doorway (Oskaloosa) Ham House (Dubuque) Naughty George (Des Moines) Desperado (Winterset) 141 Kansas Old Deg (Emporia) Ghost of the Purple Masque (Manhattan) Ménage à Trois (Wichita) Legend of White Woman Creek (Greeley County) Phantom Riders of the Pony Express (Hanover) A Dog’s Tale (Dodge City) The Cursed Knife (Topeka) Elizabeth Polly (Fort Hays) Michigan The Soul of Stephen Strand (Battle Creek) The Schooner Erie Board of Trade (Saginaw) Man on the Beach (Deer Park) Redemption (Detroit) The Lynching (Menominee) The Lake Odessa Mystery (Lake Odessa) The Spurned Suitor (Gross Isle) Minnesota The Ghost Wore Plaid (St. Paul) Now You See Them (Rochester and Becker County) The Luminescent Attic (Eveleth) The Specter Priest (Winona) Mrs. Moriarity Comes Calling (St. Paul) The Invisible Homesteader (Monticello) The Phantom Miner (Crosby) A House on Summit Avenue (St. Paul) The Levitation of Archie Collins (Minneapolis) Missouri The Hornet Spook Light (Joplin) Sentries in the Night (St. Louis) The Midnight Rider (Sand Springs) The Ghost of Paris (Paris) The Corporal’s Lady (Columbia) Mark Twain, Psychic (St. Louis) Forever Mine (Kirksville) The Curious Visitors (Ste. Genevieve) Nebraska Miss Anna (Hastings) 336 Terror of Omaha Heights (Omaha) Beware the Soddy (Phelps County) The Bates House (Dakota City) A Strange Interlude (Lincoln) Ohio Girl of the Lilacs (Bucyrus) H. P. and Son (Cleveland) An Invitation (Willis) Franklin Castle (Cleveland) The Ethereal Innkeepers (Granville) The Pirate’s Mistress (Scioto River Valley) Old Raridan (Jackson and Pike Counties) Wisconsin Our Three Ghosts (Pierce County) Everlasting (Shorewood) Spirit of Rosslynne Manse (Delafield) Mrs. Pickman Goes Too Far (Milwaukee) Mr. Sherman Pays a Visit (Plover) The Nodolf Incident (Platteville) Return of the Hanged Man (Mineral Point) A Mother’s Plea (Southwestern Wisconsin) The Psychic Detective (Milwaukee) Bibliography