Network Business Series
Justify Your Network Investment
The definitive guide to IPv6 decision making for non-technical business leaders
Every year, organizations rely on Internet applications and services more deeply—and every year, Internet infrastructure grows more powerful and complex. As the limitations of traditional IPv4 addressing become increasingly apparent, many decision makers recognize that a transition to IPv6 is needed far sooner than anticipated. Global IPv6 Strategies gives non-technical decision makers the information to plan and execute an orderly, efficient migration to IPv6—and reap the business benefits.
This book’s authors offer practical scenarios, proven best practices, and real-world case studies drawn from their unsurpassed experience helping enterprises and service providers move to IPv6. Writing for non-technical decision makers, they systematically review the costs, benefits, impacts, and opportunities associated with IPv6 migration. Their insights and strategies can help you address both the technical side of IPv6 and the rarely discussed organizational issues that can make or break your transition.
Patrick Grossetete, manager of Product Management at Cisco®, is responsible for key Cisco IOS® software technologies including IPv6 and IP Mobility. A member of the IPv6 Forum Technical Directorate, he has been honored with the IPv6 Forum Internet Pioneer Award.
Ciprian P. Popoviciu, PhD, CCIE® No. 4499, technical leader at Cisco, focuses on architecting, designing, and testing large IPv6 network deployments for service providers and enterprises worldwide. Grossetete and Popoviciu co-authored Deploying IPv6 Networks (Cisco Press).
Fred Wettling manages architecture and strategic planning for Bechtel. Wettling is a member of the IEEE, North American IPv6 Task Force, and IPv6 Forum; directs the IPv6 Business Council; chaired the Network Applications Consortium (NAC); and served on the President’s National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee Next Generation Network Task Force.
- Understand how efficient IP communications are rapidly becoming even more central to business and economic growth.
- Get past the “IPv4 vs. IPv6” myths that prevent effective decision making and planning.
- Objectively assess the constraints of existing IPv4 infrastructures—and learn how IPv6 can overcome them.
- Develop and analyze the business case for IPv6—with help from real-world, never-before-published case studies.
- Identify hidden business opportunities IPv6 can unleash.
- Choose the optimal IPv6 adoption strategy for your enterprise or organization.
- Learn realistic best practices for planning successful migrations
This volume is in the Network Business Series offered by Cisco Press®. Books in this series provide IT executives, decision makers, and networking professionals with pertinent information about today’s most important technologies and business strategies.
Category: Networking Technology
About the Author
Patrick Grossetete, manager of product management at Cisco, is responsible for a suite of Cisco IOS software technologies, including IPv6 and IP Mobility. He manages Cisco participation in the IPv6 Forum and is a regular speaker at conferences and industry events. Patrick is coauthor of Deploying IPv6 Networks (Cisco Press). In June 2003, he received the “IPv6 Forum Internet Pioneer Award” at the San Diego summit. Patrick joined Cisco in 1994 as a consulting engineer. Before joining Cisco, Patrick worked at Digital Equipment Corporation as a consulting engineer and was involved with network design and deployment. He received a degree in computer science from the Control Data Institute, Paris, France.
Ciprian Popoviciu, PhD, CCIE No. 4499, is a technical leader at Cisco Systems with more than ten years of experience in data and Voice over IP communications technologies. As part of the Cisco Network Solution Integration Test Engineering (NSITE) organization, he focuses on the architecture, design, and validation of large IPv6 network deployments in direct collaboration with service providers and enterprises worldwide. Ciprian is a regular speaker or chair at conferences and industry events and contributes to various technology publications. He is an active contributor to the IETF standards, a senior member of IEEE, a member of several academic advisory boards, and a coauthor of Deploying IPv6 Networks (Cisco Press). Ciprian holds a BS from Babes-Bolyai University, Romania, and an MS and Ph.D. from the University of Miami.
Fred Wettlingmanages architecture and strategic planning for Bechtel Corporation, one of the world’s premier engineering, construction, and project management companies. Fred is one of 20 Bechtel Fellows out of a population of 40,000. He has extensive experience in project and office startups, major technology transitions, innovations, and technology operations at 20+ Bechtel projects and offices. Fred is active within and outside of Bechtel promoting standards-based technology interoperability that supports global enterprise business needs. Fred is a member of the IEEE, North American IPv6 Task Force, and IPv6 Forum, and is executive director of the IPv6 Business Council. He served as the Network Applications Consortium (NAC) chairman for five years. Fred was selected as one of the 50 most powerful people in networking by Network World from 2003 to 2006. He is a senior member of the Cisco Enterprise and Federal Technical Advisory Boards and served on the President’s National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) Next Generation Network Task Force as a subject matter expert.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 The Business and Economic Importance of IP Commnications 1
The Internet Today 2
IP Infrastructure: Strategic Assets 7
The Economies of Scale and the Growth of IP Infrastructures 12
What Comes Next for IP Communications? 13
Chapter 2 IPv4 or IPv6óMyths and Realities 17
The Business Case for IPv6 18
A Brief History of IPv6 Standardization 19
Looking at the Numbers 23
Earth Population Versus Internet Users 24
Mobile Phone Market Segment 27
Consumer Devices 29
Industrial Sensors and Control Systems 33
Common Observations When Looking at the Numbers 35
IP: Today’s Constraints and Tomorrow’s Solutions 36
Is IPv4 Running Out of Addresses? 36
Are NAT Benefits Lost by Moving to IPv6? 39
Is IPv6 Improving Routing? 40
Does IPv6 Support Multihomed Sites? 40
Does IPv6 Deliver Plug-and-Play Autoconfiguration? 43
Does IPv6 Offer Better QoS? 45
Is IPv6 Required for Mobility? 46
Does IPv6 Provide Increased Security? 48
Is Renumbering Easier with IPv6? 50
Chapter 3 The Economy of an IP Evolution 55
The Macroeconomic and National Perspective 58
The Global Information Society: WSIS 62
Stimulating Innovation 66
Opportunities to Develop Local Industry 68
Enabling Education 69
The Business Perspective 71
Addressing the Market Transformation and Needs 72
The Convergence of IP-Based Communications 73
The Demand for Information 74
Social Networking 76
Fixed-Mobile Convergence 76
Servicing Networks for People 77
Facilitating and Stimulating Growth 78
Service Providers 78
Operations Simplifications 80
Gaining Competitive Edge and Leadership 81
The Costs of an IP Evolution 82
Chapter 4 IPv6 Adoption Strategies 89
National Strategies 90
Mandated Adoption 94
Government-Sponsored Adoption 105
Japan and South Korea 106
South Korea 109
European Union 111
National Research Environments and Projects 114
Business Strategies 117
Defining the Standards 119
Creating Infrastructure Platforms 122
Addressing Specific Customer Requirements 127
Requiring Operating System Integration of Applications 128
Requiring Zero Impact of IPv6 129
Requirements Driven by Mandate Responses 129
Establishing Leadership Through New Services 130
Establishing Leadership Through Innovation 132
Be a Follower 134
IPv6 Adoption Challenges 138
Industry Perspective 138
Academic Perspective 142
Chapter 5 Analysis of Business Cases for IPv6: Case Studies 147
Service Providers 152
Broadband Access Provider: Comcast 153
Company Profile 154
Network and IT Profile 155
IP Infrastructure Characteristics 156
Perspective on IPv6 157
The Case for IPv6 158
IPv6 Planning and Implementation 160
Lessons Learned 165
Service Provider: Sprint Nextel 165
Company Profile 167
Network and IT Profile 169
IP Infrastructure Characteristics 171
Perspective on IPv6 172
The Case for IPv6 174
IPv6 Planning and Implementation 179
Lessons Learned 185
Tier 1 Service Provider: Tata Communications 187
Company Profile 189
Network and IT Profile 191
IP Infrastructure Characteristics 194
Perspective on IPv6 195
The Case for IPv6 196
IPv6 Planning and Implementation 197
Lessons Learned 202
IT Utility Service: SAVVIS 203
Company Profile 205
Network and IT Profile 206
IP Infrastructure Characteristics 209
Perspective on IPv6 210
The Case for IPv6 211
IPv6 Planning and Implementation 212
Lessons Learned 215
Mobile Provider: Bouygues Telecom 216
Company Profile 220
Network and IT Profile 221
IP Infrastructure Characteristics 222
Perspective on IPv6 223
The Case for IPv6 224
IPv6 Planning 225
Lessons Learned 228
Education: Greek School Network 229
Organization Profile 232
Network and IT Profile 233
IP Infrastructure Characteristics 236
Perspective on IPv6 236
The Case for IPv6 237
IPv6 Planning and Implementation 239
Lessons Learned 242
Factice World BankóExploratory Case Study 244
Company Profile 247
IT Profile 248
IP Infrastructure Characteristics 249
Perspective on IPv6 251
“No Case” for IPv6 253
IPv6 Planning and Implementation 254
Lessons Learned 255
Government AgenciesóEarly Adopters 257
Company Profile 260
IT Profile 261
IP Infrastructure Characteristics 263
Perspective on IPv6 264
The Case for IPv6 266
IPv6 Planning and Implementation 268
Lessons Learned 275
Information TechnologyóNetworking: Cisco Systems 277
Company Profile 279
IT Profile 281
IP Infrastructure Characteristics 282
Perspective on IPv6 285
The Case for IPv6 287
IPv6 Planning and Implementation 288
Lessons Learned 290
Global Engineering and Construction: Bechtel Corporation 291
Company Profile 291
Network and IT Profile 292
IP Infrastructure Characteristics 294
Perspective on IPv6 298
The Case for IPv6 300
IPv6 Planning and Implementation 308
The IPv6 Team 318
Lessons Learned 320
Networked Sensor Technology: Arch Rock 324
Company Profile 328
IP and Sensor Networks 329
The Case for IPv6 331
Lessons Learned 334
Professional Services: Command Information 335
Company Profile 338
IT Profile 340
IP Infrastructure Characteristics 341
Perspective on IPv6 342
The Case for IPv6 346
IPv6 Planning and Implementation 349
Lessons Learned 353
Chapter 6 Planning Your IPv6 Migration 357
Plan for IPv6 in the IT Environment 358
Define the Objectives 362
Alignment with Strategic Objectives 363
Project Goals 365
Project Scope 366
Project Timeline 368
Metrics and Milestones 369
Project Plan Development 370
Assess the IT Environment 371
Product Assessment 373
Actions Based on Product Assessment 375
Operational and Governance Policies 375
Governance Considerations 376
Organizational Leadership 377
Policy Considerations 378
Project Execution Policies 381
Initiate and Support Technology Education 383
Training Domains 384
Educational and Information Resources 385
Training Assessment 386
IPv6 Address Planning 387
Leverage the IPv6 Industry Experience 388
Business and Technology News 388
Standards Compliancy and Interoperability Information 389
Vendor and Application References 390
Research Efforts 391
Documented Deployments 392
IPv6 in Other Standards 393
Evolutionary Perspective 398
Adoption Perspective 400
Futuristic Perspective 402
TOC, 1587053438, 4/24/08
The continued evolution and operation of the Internet as a truly global asset faces multiple challenges: impending exhaustion of the global IPv4 address space, new operating systems and applications, next generation infrastructures, and demand for always-on connectivity for a growing variety of devices. The requirements of a new Internet, the pressure generated by the lack of resources for the existing one, and government mandates are just a few drivers for the soaring interest in IPv6 and the demand for information related to the protocol. The technological aspects of the next generation Internet protocol have been diligently covered through a wide range of publications. Considering, the potential implications of early versus late IPv6 adoption, there is significant interest in information related to adoption strategies, to business perspectives on IPv6 use, and to concrete experiences.
The global impact of a technology or a set of technologies on the larger population and the society as a whole can truly be evaluated years after its creation when enough data has been accumulated for a proper analysis. As an example, the unprecedented, wide range of advances made in all domains of life (arts, education, politics, philosophy, literature, and science) during the Renaissance period, one of the most prolific periods in human history, can be traced to the adoption of one technology: printing. Gutenberg's invention increased the amount of documented knowledge and information by reducing the costs of capturing it. More importantly, printing dramatically increased accessibility to knowledge and information by reducing the replication costs. One technology enabled human civilization to build its knowledge base and to tap into a significantly larger pool of talent. These scaled-up resources were the information and communication infrastructure that enabled innovations in all aspects of human life.
In itself, the "moveable type" technology, as Gutenberg called it, was not the prize but just the enabler. Gutenberg's enterprise defaulted shortly after a promising start but it enabled an information revolution that was the catalyst of many other revolutions. The often drawn parallel between the discovery and history of printing and that of the Internet highlights the same characteristic. The Internet represents the enabler of today's information revolution, changing the way we live, play, learn, and work.
A close evaluation of the two information revolutions highlights a very important difference. The printing-based revolution was to a certain extent asymmetricit somewhat reduced the cost of producing content while it vastly reduced the cost of accessing content. This paradigm was further supported and expanded in scope through other media means such as radio and television. Although in its initial implementation stages the Internet appeared to do the same thing, as it matured, it enabled a more symmetric information revolution by dramatically decreasing the costs of producing content. The Internet is reducing the costs of producing and consuming information, and bringing together enough users to create an audience for any niche content. In addition, the Internet is providing its users with ubiquitous global access to information, removing the distance and time barriers faced in the past. The Internet has laid the foundation for a new and different information revolution. While traditional media such as newspaper, radio, and television cater to the mainstream, the Internet addresses new audiences and enables new means of communications and new business models.
It is important to make a clear distinction between the Internet and the applications that run over it. These applications are apparent to most of its users and are the true measure of the economic and societal impact of the Internet. With the exception of technologists, however, the terms Internet (infrastructure) and World Wide Web (application) are for most people interchangeable. While like many other technologies such as railroads, automobiles, and radio, the Internet inspired its own economic bubble, it survives, continues to grow, and provides the environment for truly valuable applications and services. This infrastructure and its evolution is the focus of this book despite the necessary references to its uses.
From its initial deployment as a research network to its current state, the Internet as an infrastructure has seen the functionality of the devices, applications, and services deployed on it grow in direct relation to its capabilities, capacity, and scale:
Higher speeds: The Internet is leveraging newer technologies providing wired or wireless access with ever-increasing bandwidths and lower costs.
- Larger footprint: The "network of networks," as the Internet is known, continues to expand its geographical coverage and to include more and more businesses and people.
- Including more device types: The Internet evolved from interconnecting large mainframes with dumb terminals to connecting personal computers, mobile phones, and sensors.
- Always-on connectivity: Ubiquitous in nature, the Internet enables its users to communicate continuously regardless of their point of attachment.
To support Web 2.0, which encompasses the latest set of Internet-based applications and services, the infrastructure continues to evolve through the so-called Next Generation Networks. Web 2.0 is finally taking advantage of the Internet's true potential and distances by its immediate "people-to-people" collaborative environment from the technologies that expanded the information revolution started by printing. Web 2.0 is starting the next information revolution, and for that it requires an ever-increasing user base, individually addressable users, and symmetric (similar upstream and downstream bandwidth), always-on, mobile connections. Will the technology be able to cope with these demands?
Although today nobody could envisage a world without Internet connectivity, the original design of the Internet Protocol, the foundation of this infrastructure, did not foresee this level of adoption. IP simply does not have the resources to connect today's earth population let alone to support its growth over the coming years. Moreover, in an attempt to conserve resources, the Internet today lost the symmetry of its original brilliant design. This is why the time is high for a new version of the Internet Protocol, known as IPv6, a necessary evolution for this mature technology.
As is the case with any foundational, infrastructure technology, the importance and economic impact of this evolution might be difficult to measure. Although the upgrade is an inevitable process, misunderstanding its importance and delaying its planning and adoption can have a significant impact at micro- and macroeconomic levels. This is particularly the case with infrastructure technologies that benefit from very little attention from a market driven mostly by short-term delivery. The right perspective on the evolution of the infrastructure needs to be bootstrapped by strategic, global, and visionary thinking. On January 16, 2003, the National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) was presented an IPv6 strawman proposal by John Chambers, who at the time was one of its members. In his letter to the council, Chambers stated:
We believe the United States needs a migration strategy built on a solid investigation of the issues surrounding IPv6 adoption, and therefore propose that the United States National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) recommend that the President establish a Task Force on IPv6 to develop a national policy on its adoption. Such a policy should cover the U.S. Federal government and the critical infrastructure industry sectors.
Despite weak market interest in IPv6 at that time, NIAC's catalytic initiative was followed by coordinated government efforts, highlighted by the 2003 DoD and the 2005 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) IPv6 mandates. These efforts led to increased IPv6 interest within the United States and helped reverse its falling behind other nations in terms of understanding and adopting the new protocol.
The goal of this book is to provide a global overview of the strategies that developed around the IPv6 adoption and the perspectives taken on it within various markets. Although several sections briefly cover some technical aspects of the protocol, the objective of the book is to complement the technological viewpoint offered by a growing number of publications in the market with a business perspective. IPv6 adoption drivers and trends are reviewed at international, national, and business levels and some of the practical lessons learned are shared through concrete case studies. It turns out that a smooth and optimal integration of IPv6 depends as much on a good adoption strategy as it depends on understanding the technology.
Goals and Methods
This book intends to provide a business perspective on IPv6 and its adoption, complementing the many technical IPv6 titles available today. It also intends to provide the readers with some of the "whys" and the "whens" applied to IPv6 strategies and some of the "hows" discovered through implementation experience by various organizations, countries, and market segments around the world. If the clamor of IPv6 has reached your desk and you simply want to understand what the big deal is, this book will bring you up to speed.
To that end, the book will present you information that answers the following questions:
- In a nutshell, what are the real technical benefits of IPv6?
- What are some of the business and technical opportunities presented by IPv6?
- What IPv6 adoption strategies have emerged in various markets and throughout the world?
- What did other organizations do to adopt IPv6?
- How do I prepare my organization for IPv6?
The book combines market analysis and case study methods to provide the current state of IPv6 adoption. It also provides practical guidelines based on the extensive IPv6 planning and deployment experience of the authors.
Who Should Read This Book?
In the experience of the authors, the big questions of "Why IPv6?" "When IPv6?" and "How IPv6?" are, in various forms and at various levels of intensity, on the minds of all people who are connected with the IT-related aspects of their organizations. These questions still bother the (by now IPv6 savvy) networking specialist as well as the CIOs who start to see IPv6 sneak in among the usual hot topics of VoIP and security. Regardless of their level of familiarity with the protocol, technical and business professionals alike want to understand what drives the IPv6 adoption and to see concrete examples of IPv6 strategies.
This book should be read by IT professionals, by IT department managers, by senior managers, and by executives of all organizations leveraging an IP infrastructure. It should also be of interest to people in academia and to government officials who work on IT-related, government initiatives.
How This Book Is Organized
The structure of the book was developed to start with the larger context of the economic and business importance of IP communications and to gradually focus on the various aspects of the IP upgrade. One chapter is dedicated to debunking some of the common IPv6 technology myths in order to set a realistic baseline for the discussion. The review of perspectives on IPv6 is paired with examples of developed and implemented adoption strategies. The final chapter provides IPv6 integration planning tips gleaned from the lessons learned by organizations that went through the process.
The six chapters of this book cover the following topics:
- Chapter 1, "The Business and Economic Importance of IP Communications:" This chapter reviews the importance of the Internet in today's economy. It explains why the Internet infrastructure became a strategic asset for nations, enterprises, and service providers. It also reviews the market trends toward an IP convergence that leads to rapid growth of the overall Internet infrastructure and drives the need for an evolution of the Internet protocol.
- Chapter 2, "IPv4 or IPv6Myths and Realities:" This chapter discusses the original case for developing IPv6 as presented by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It provides additional arguments in support of developing a new version of IP based on protocol adoption trends and statistics such as the growing world population. The discussion focuses on some technical aspects of the protocol by reviewing the most popular and notorious IPv4-IPv6 myths that you may encounter regularly in the press and open forums.
- Chapter 3, "The Economy of an IP Evolution:" This chapter takes a closer look at the constraints presented by an IPv4 infrastructure to national economies and individual businesses. By eliminating these constraints, an IP upgrade opens a set of new opportunities that are less apparent drivers for IPv6 adoption. This chapter presents a more realistic perspective on adoption drivers, a perspective that takes into consideration the foundational nature of the technology considered and departs from the simplistic ROI-based approach.
- Chapter 4, "IPv6 Adoption Strategies:" This chapter maps some of the adoption drivers analyzed in Chapter 3 to IPv6 adoption strategies that emerged at the beginning of the 21st century. Both "national" and "business" strategies are analyzed independently in a structure that matches that of Chapter 3. Along with the descriptions of strategies, this chapter presents some of the adoption challenges faced by the industry.
- Chapter 5, "Analysis of Business Cases for IPv6: Case Studies:" This chapter is the core of this book, emphasizing its focus on providing practical information that can be applied in developing IPv6 adoption strategies. The chapter builds on the analysis offered in Chapter 4 by offering concrete, real-life examples of IPv6 strategies developed by various organizations in various markets. The case studies highlight the profile of the organizations in order to help the reader to put the strategies in the proper context and to be able to relate to the environments described. The case studies present the perspective that these organizations have on IPv6 and the drivers they identified for developing the IPv6 strategy. Planning and implementation suggestions and challenges are also discussed.
- Chapter 6, "Planning Your IPv6 Migration:" As a corollary to the case studies, this final chapter reviews key aspects related to IPv6 planning. It steers away from technology discussions, a topic covered extensively in other books, and focuses on mandatory steps an organization has to take toward a successful and cost-effective deployment of IPv6. There is a lot more to consider in building an IPv6 strategy than the technology itself. This chapter summarizes the experiences gained to date with respect to this process.
Where to Go from Here
Although the industry has reached consensus regarding the inevitability of an IP upgrade, the time to start on that path is largely dependent on the market an organization belongs to, on its long-term vision, and on the national and international environment in which it operates. The timing of an IPv6 adoption is ultimately similar to that of adopting other technologies. It is the result of balancing the benefits and expenses of being an early adopter with the risks of being a late adopter. The important thing in the case of IPv6 is to realize that it is a foundational technology and the benefits or risks of adoption, although potentially significant, might be less apparent. This aspect of IPv6 and its adoption has been made clear by the complex market perception of and approach to the topic.
At the end of this book, if you feel better positioned to confidently define an IPv6 strategy for your organization or you are better informed to understand the reasoning behind IPv6-focused policies enforced within your organization, then this book has achieved its goals. The authors intend to bridge the gap between the technology and the business dimensions of IPv6 to shed some light on a technological evolution with potentially revolutionary business outcomes.
So what's next? A reader with a taste for technology can follow up with books focused on the protocol and its deployment such as Deploying IPv6 Networks by Cisco Press. Most importantly, you can analyze your organization's IPv6 requirements and apply some of the lessons learned here to the development of an IPv6 strategy that ensures its efficient, cost effective, and timely integration in the existing or next generation IP infrastructure.
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