ISBN-10:
1933264780
ISBN-13:
9781933264783
Pub. Date:
03/28/2010
Publisher:
Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company, Inc.
Forensic Aspects of Driver Perception and Response / Edition 3

Forensic Aspects of Driver Perception and Response / Edition 3

Hardcover

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Overview

This best-selling reference pulls together the available information on two primary themes: What a driver could have (should have) seen or how long it takes to respond in an emergency situation. The book covers general principles of vision and perception, visibility with motor vehicle headlamps and with streetlighting, night photography, methods of evaluation, basic perception-response situations and complicating factors.

Many cases come down to questions of what a driver could have or should have seen or how long it would take a driver to respond in an emergency situation. The book is divided into two sections. The first, dealing with perception, consists of several chapters covering the general principles of vision and perception, visibility with motor vehicle head lamps, visibility with street lighting, night photography, and methods of evaluation. The second section, dealing with driver perception response time, consists of two chapters covering basic perception-response situations and those with complicating factors.

For more than 30 years, Dr. Olson has authored many reports, publications, and book chapters on Human Factors research he conducted at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute and at General Motors Research Laboratories. Since 1993, Dr. Olson has served as a consultant in litigation regarding issues concerning his original research.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781933264783
Publisher: Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company, Inc.
Publication date: 03/28/2010
Pages: 504
Product dimensions: 5.70(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.50(d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Purpose and Scope
1.2 Human Factors in Accident Reconstruction
A. Introduction
B. History
C. Human Factors in Product Evaluation and Development
D. Applicability of Human Factors to Accident Reconstruction
1.3 Human Variability
A. The Problem
B. Descriptive Statistics
C. Correlation
D. Inferential Statistics
E. The Concept of Threshold
1.4 Expectancy
A. What It Is
B. Driver Expectancy

Chapter 2: Light and Its Measurement
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The Nature of Light
2.3 Definitions
A. Light-Reflecting Surfaces
1. Diffuse reflectors
2. Specular reflectors
3. Retroreflectors
B. Miscellaneous Visibility-Enhancing Materials
1. Fluorescent materials
2. Luminous materials
2.4 Photometry
A. Luminous Intensity and Illuminance
B. Luminance
C. Means of Measurement

Chapter 3: Vision, Audition, Vibration and The Processing of Information
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Vision
A. Measurement of Visual Performance
1. Acuity
2. Contrast Sensitivity Function
3. Other Measures of Visual Performance
4. Relationship Between Vision Tests and Driving Performance
B. Structure and Performance of the Eye
1. Structure
2. The Functioning of the Visual System at Different Levels of
Illumination
3. Implications for Vision Due to the Structure of the Eye
C. Glare
1. Disability Glare
2. Discomfort Glare
D. The Useful Field of View
E. The Twilight Period
3.3 Auditory Issues
A. Problems with sound
B. Noise
3.4 Vibration
3.5 Information Processing
3.6 Memory Questions

Chapter 4: DriverEye Movements and Visual Attention
4.1 Introduction
A. Terminology
B. Methodology
4.2 Driver Eye Movements
4.3 Driver Experience
4.4 Negotiating Curves
4.5 Effects of Drugs and Alcohol
4.6 Effects of Fatigue
4.7 Vehicle Characteristics
4.8 Age and Sex
4.9 Interior Glances
4.10 Effect of In-Vehicle Devices
4.11 Use of Mirrors
A. Duration of Routine Mirror Glances
B. Duration Of Mirror Glances In Connection With Merges And Lane Changes
C. Mirror and Direct Rearward Glances when Changing Lanes and Merging
D. The Timing of Rearward Glances with Respect to the Gore
4.12 The Effect of Secondary Glances on Accident Avoidance

Chapter 5: Conspicuity
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Motorcycle and Bicycle Conspicuity
5.3 The Conspicuity of Emergency Vehicles
5.4 Truck Conspicuity
5.5 Pedestrian and Pavement Delineation Conspicuity

Chapter 6: Driver Perception
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Perception as Contrasted to Sensation
A. Definition
B. The Nature of Perception
6.3 Illusions
6.4 Applications
6.5 Difficulties in Perception While Driving
A. Problems with the Roadway
B. Violations of Expectancy
C. Judging Distance to Lights
6.6 The Intruding Vehicle
6.7 Positive Guidance
6.8 Eyewitness Testimony

Chapter 7: Judgments of Speed and Distance

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Perception of Distance
7.3 Perception of Speed
7.4 Threshold for Closing Speed
7.5 Speed Perception and Vehicle Size

Chapter 8: The Driver's Field of View
8.1 Introduction
8.2 What a Driver Must See
8.3 Field-of-View Targets
8.4 Driver Eye Locations
8.5 Binocular and Ambinocular Vision
8.6 Obstruction of the Forward Field of View
8.7 A-Pillar Obstruction of Intersecting Vehicles
8.8 A-pillar Obstruction of Pedestrians and Bicyclists
8.9 Measuring Pillar Obstructions in the Field
A. Measuring the Ambinocular A-pillar Obstruction of a Pedestrian
B. Measuring the Ambinocular A-pillar Obstruction of an Intersecting Vehicle
8.10 Obstructions to the Side and Rear
A. A Note on Convex Mirrors ("Objects in Mirror Are Closer than They Appear")
B. Mirrors and Overtaking Vehicles
C. Pillar Obstructions to the Side and Rear Direct Fields-of-View
8.11 The Field of view from Large Trucks
8.12 Measuring the Field of View in Large Trucks

Chapter 9: The Visibility Provided by Vehicle Lighting Systems
9.1 Introduction
9.2 The Importance of Target Contrast
A. Definition
B. Calculating Contrast
9.3 The Reflectivity of Objects in the Real World
9.4 Driver Vision at Night
A. Vehicle Lighting Systems
1. Technology Used in Automotive Lighting
2. Enhanced Vision Systems
3. Characteristics of U.S. Headlamps
4. The intensity-visibility distance relationship
5. Implications
B. The Visibility Provided by Automotive Headlamps
9.5 Nighttime Driving Speeds
9.6 When Drivers "Overdrive" Their Headlamps

Chapter 10: Factors That Affect Driver Visibility Under Nighttime Driving Conditions
10.1 Introduction
10.2 PCDETECT
10.3 The Distance-Squared Law and Visibility Level
10.4 Comparisons
A. Target B. Target Location
C. Target Size
D. Driver Age
E. Contrast Sensitivity
F. Headlamp Misaim
G. Headlamp Intensity
H. Glare
I. Lamp Mounting Height
J. Lateral Separation

Chapter 11: Lighting Sources Other Than Vehicle Headlamps
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Fixed Lighting Sources
A. Mercury
B. High-Pressure Sodium
C. Metal Halide
D. Fluorescent
E. Low-Pressure Sodium
F. Light-Emitting Diodes (LED)
11.3 The Distribution of Illuminance From Street Lamps
11.4 Loss in Performance of Light Sources
11.5 The Scene When Illuminated by Fixed Sources
11.6 Research on the Performance of Fixed Lighting Systems
11.7 Recommendations for Street Lighting
11.8 Assessment of Visibility in a Field Investigation

Chapter 12: Evaluation of Visibility in the Field
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Why Do a Field Investigation?
12.3 Preparatory Phase
A. Physical Facilities
B. Vehicles
C. Vehicle Lighting and Marking Equipment
1. Type or manufacturer of lamps
2. Headlamp aim
3. Lamp output
4. Dirt on glass surfaces
5. Headlamp photometry
6. Environmental conditions
7. Lighting conditions
8. Observer age
12.4 Execution Stage
12.5 Analysis and Interpretation

Chapter 13: Problems in the Use of Nighttime Photography as Evidence in Litigation
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Limitations in the Camera-Film System
13.3 Perceptual-Cognitive Issues
A. Field of View
B. Static Versus Dynamic Viewing
C. Viewing Time
D. Adaptation Level
E. Image Size
F. Depth Perception
G. Glare
H. Observer Expectancy
13.4 Implications

Chapter 14: Roadway Design and the Driver
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Perception of the Road
14.3 Visual Search
14.4 Driver Workload
14.5 Sight Distance
A. Decision Sight Distance
B. Stopping Sight Distance
C. Passing Sight Distance
D. Intersection Sight Distance
E. Additional Sight Distance Factors
14.6 Roadway Design
A. Roadway Width
B. Intersections
C. Roundabouts
D. Curves
14.7 Traffic Calming
14.8 Road Safety Audits

Chapter 15: Work Zones
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Driver Information Needs in Work Zones
15.3 Driver Distraction
15.4 Age Differences
15.5 Nighttime Conditions
15.6 Visibility of Workers
15.7 Trucks
15.8 Traffic Control in Work Zones

Chapter 16: Railroad Grade Crossings
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Driver Perception of Railroad Crossing Hazards
16.3 Recognition Errors

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