Flatland

Flatland

by Edwin A. Abbott

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Overview

How would a creature limited to two dimensions be able to grasp the possibility of a third? Edwin A. Abbott's droll and delightful "romance of many dimensions" explores this conundrum in the experiences of his protagonist, A Square, whose linear world is invaded by an emissary Sphere bringing the gospel of the third dimension. Part geometry lesson, part social satire, this classic work of science fiction brilliantly succeeds in enlarging all readers' imaginations beyond the limits of their "respective dimensional prejudices." Unless you're a mathematician, the chances of you reading any novels about geometry are probably slender. But if you read only one in your life, this should be at the top of your list. Flatland imagines a two-dimensional world inhabited by sentient geometric shapes who think their planar world is all there is. But one Flatlander, a Square, discovers the existence of a third dimension and the limits of his world's assumptions about reality and comes to understand the confusing problem of higher dimensions. The book is also quite a funny satire on society and class distinctions of Victorian England.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781978176331
Publisher: CreateSpace Publishing
Publication date: 10/12/2017
Pages: 94
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 11.00(h) x 0.19(d)

About the Author

Rosemary Jann is a professor of English and Cultural Studies at George Mason University.

Read an Excerpt

Part One This World

"Be patient, for the world is broad and wide."

1 Of the Nature of Flatland

I call our world Flatland, not because we call it so, but to make its nature clearer to you, my happy readers, who are privileged to live in Space.

Imagine a vast sheet of paper on which straight Lines, Triangles, Squares, Pentagons, Hexagons, and other figures, instead of remaining fixed in their places, move freely about, on or in the surface, but without the power of rising, above or sinking below it, very much like shadows-only hard and with luminous edges-and you will then have a pretty correct notion of my country and countrymen. Alas, a few years ago, I should have said "my universe": but now my mind has been opened to higher views of things.

In such a country, you will perceive at once that it is impossible that there should be anything of what you call a " solid" kind; but I dare say you will suppose that you could at least distinguish by sight the Triangles, Squares, and other figures, moving about as I have described them. On the contrary, we could see nothing of the kind, not at least so as to distinguish one figure from another. Nothing was visible, nor could be visible, to us, except Straight Lines; and the necessity of this I will speedily demonstrate.

Place a penny on the middle of one of your tables in Space; and leaning over it, look down upon it. It will appear a circle.

But now, drawing back to the edge of the table, gradually lower your eye (thus bringing yourself more and more into the condition of the inhabitants of Flatland), and you will find the penny becoming more and more oval to your view; and at lastwhen you have placed your eye exactly on the edge of the table (so that you are, as it were, actually a Flatlander) the penny will then have ceased to appear oval at all, and will have become, so far as you can see, a straight line.

The same thing would happen if you were to treat in the same way a Triangle, or Square, or any other figure cut out of pasteboard. As soon as you look at it with your eye on the edge of the table, you will find that it ceases to appear to you a figure, and that it becomes in appearance a straight line. Take for example an equilateral Triangle-who represents with us a Tradesman of the respectable class. Fig. I represents the Tradesman as you would see him while you were bending over him from above; figs. 2 and 3 represent the Tradesman, as you would see him if your eye were close to the level, or all but on the level of the table; and if your eye were quite on the level of the table (and that is how we see him in Flatland) you would see nothing but a straight line.

When I was in Spaceland I heard that your sailors have very similar experiences while they traverse your seas and discern some distant island or coast lying on the horizon. The far-off land may have bays, forelands, angles in and out to any number and extent; yet at a distance you see none of these (unless indeed your sun shines bright upon them revealing the projections and retirements by means of light and shade), nothing but a grey unbroken line upon the water.

Well, that is just what we see when one of our triangular or other acquaintances comes towards us in Flatland. As there is neither sun with us, nor any light of such a kind as to make shadows, we have none of the helps to the sight that you have in Spaceland. If our friend comes closer to us we see his line becomes larger; if he leaves us it becomes smaller: but still he looks like a straight line; be he a Triangle, Square, Pentagon, Hexagon, Circle, what you will -- a straight Line he looks and nothing else.

You may perhaps ask how under these disadvantageous circumstances we are able to distinguish our friends from one another: but the answer to this very natural question will be more fitly and easily given when I come to describe the inhabitants of Flatland. For the present let me defer this subject, and say a word or two about the climate and houses in our country.

2 Of the Climate and Houses in Flatland

As with you, so also with us, there are four points of the compass North, South, East, and West.

There being no sun nor other heavenly bodies, it is impossible for us to determine the North in the usual way; but we have a method of our own. By a Law of Nature with us, there is a constant attraction to the South; and, although in temperate climates this is very slight-so that even a Woman in reasonable health can journey several furlongs northward without much difficulty-yet the hampering effect of the southward attraction is quite sufficient to serve as a compass in most parts of our earth. Moreover, the rain (which falls at stated intervals) coming always from the North, is an additional assistance; and in the towns we have the guidance of the houses, which of course have their side-walls running for the most part North and South, so that the roofs may keep off the rain from the North. In the country, where there are no houses, the trunks of the trees serve as some sort of guide. Altogether, we have not so much difficulty as might be expected in determining our bearings.

Yet in our more temperate regions, in which the southward, attraction is hardly felt, walking sometimes in a perfectly desolate plain where there have been no houses nor trees to guide me, I have been occasionally compelled to remain stationary for hours together, waiting till the rain came before continuing my journey.

Flatland. Copyright © by Edwin Abbott. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. Available now wherever books are sold.

Table of Contents

What People are Saying About This

Isaac Asimov

The best introduction one can find into the manner of perceiving dimensions. (From the Forward)

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Flatland 4 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 7 reviews.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
I chose this book (foolishly) to purchase rather than other editions because of the colorful cover. This edition was exactly the same as the "Gutenberg Project's" Ascii edition. It had the same print styles, same illustrations (in ASCII ART) and font styles. This book was just printed out and bound version of the free "Gutenberg Project" edition (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/201) which is just ridiculous. I of course could be wrong but the similarities are uncanny.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
If this story doesn't get your brain ticking I don't know what will. This story really makes you think. It forces the reader to look at things differently and may open up some new ways of perceiving the world.
ashishg on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
It is difficult to imagine fourth spatial dimension, much less 11 that string theory suggests, but just because we cannot even conceive the idea doesn't mean it is not possible. After all, a being in flatlat finds our three dimensional world as unfathomabe as we find multi-dimensional world. Flatland is a short and simple read but opens mind to fantasy world of no dimension (pointland), one dimension (lineland) and two dimensions (flatland). Author's imaginations conjure up social hierarchy, ruling structure, culture and history of a fictional world forcing the reader to stretch his imaginations. An quick enjoyable stimulating read that will leave you smiling and thinking in the end.
OccassionalRead on LibraryThing More than 1 year ago
Flatland is a delightful book, the only that I know of that is narrarated by a two dimensional square. It provides a lesson in geometry and understanding dimensions. But it also operates, subtly, on another level, providing perhaps a tongue in cheek commentary on the British class system and social/sexual relations. It's politically incorrect at times, if taken seriously and not as a satire, but it's a lot of fun.
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