For courses in Creative Arts in Early Childhood Education.
This text emphasizes process over product in guiding preservice teachers to guide preschoolers and primary-grade chidren in creatively expressing themselves in the arts: visual arts, dance and movement, and drama. Key changes to this edition include a new feature on extending creativity into the home with families, more multicultural content and examples of multicultural art forms, and a new section in each chapter addressing national standards.
New to this Edition!
Many changes and major revisions in this fifth edition provide a comprehensive look at the creative arts and how the arts can expand our understanding of the teaching and learning process.
Inclusion of Mathematics, Science, Social studies and the Language Arts Standards.
Each of the content chapters presents the national standards for mathematics, science, social studies and language arts and describes how these standards can be integrated into visual and performing arts lessons. This feature will help students and instructors answer the question: “How do I include the creative arts within a standards driven curriculum?” This new feature will enable students and instructors to address all of the national content areas standards in ways that are appropriate for young children.
Curriculum Planning, Lesson Plans and Arts Integreation.
The chapters on music, dance and movement, visual arts and theatre (drama) presents strategies for developing lesson plans to encourage using the arts as an all encompassing arena for including mathematics, science, social studies and the language arts within a creative arts curriculum.
Assessment.Assessment procedures are presented and described to provide students and instructors with concrete ideas that will provide children opportunities to demonstrate their capabilities in a fair and accurate manner in an authentic setting that is integrated into the instructional process.
Theory Into Practice: Implications for Teaching.
These sections take a critical look at theory and presents ideas for linking theory to practice. Suggestions are provided for developing activities based on the developmental level of the children. This feature demystifies what can be abstract theoretical ideas and describes theory in terms of children’s active learning modalities.
Where Does a Teacher Get Ideas for Creative Arts?
This feature presents ideas gleaned from practicing teachers about how they use children’s interests in deciding on ideas for process oriented art lessons. Successful lessons from teachers are included throughout the chapters on music, dance and movement, visual arts and theatre.
About the Author
Linda Carol Edwards is a professor early childhood at the College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina, where she teaches both graduate and undergraduate courses in the visual and performing arts. Her degrees include a BA from Pembroke State University, and an MEd and EdD from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Before moving to the college level, she taught kindergarten for 12 years in the public schools of North Carolina.
Dr. Edwards is the author of The Creative Arts: A Process Approach for Teachers and Children (Pearson/Merrill), which is now in its fifth edition. She is also a co-author, with Katheleen M. Bayless, Professor Emerita, Late of Kent State University, and Marjorie E. Ramsey, Georgia Southwestern College of Music and Movement: A Way of Life for the Young Child, sixth edition (Pearson/Merrill).
She has published in Young Children, Science and Children, Journal of Early Education and Family Review, Dimensions in Early Childhood, and the Kappa Delta Pi Record. She also serves on the advisory board of Annual Editions: Early Childhood Education. In addition, Dr. Edwards’s experience has allowed her to create graduate programs in early childhood education that have received NCATE/NAEYC approval.
As an advocate for arts education for young children, she takes the opportunity to present at local, state, and national conferences about the importance of the visual and performing arts in the lives of young children.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Beginning the Journey
Chapter 2 Understanding the Creative Process
Chapter 3 Exploring Feelings and Images
Chapter 4 Introducing Music and Movement
Chapter 5 Celebrating the Visual Arts
Chapter 6 Encouraging Play and Creative Drama in the Classroom
Chapter 7 Experimenting with Three-Dimensional Art
Chapter 8 Planning for Literature
Chapter 9 Beginning a New Adventure
Appendix 1 Literature
Appendix 2 Music
Appendix 3 Fingerplays
Appendix 4 Additional Guided Imagery Scripts and Extension Activities
The creative arts are one of the most revealing of all human activities. They are the ways we communicate the very essence of our aesthetic experiencesour powerful, essential, and lasting ways of bringing beauty into our world. The arts are never dry, boring, or mundane. They provide a pathway for people of all ages to reach into new unfoldings and understandings of themselves. Imagery, music and movement, the visual arts, creative drama, sculpture, and literature broaden and enrich our lives by enabling each person, whether six or seventy-six years old; to express feelings and ideas in a multitude of ways and through many different forms and modes of expression.
In writing the second edition of this text more than four years ago, I sought to convey the importance of the process of creativity in the arts and to broaden ourunderstanding of how teachers acquire knowledge and skills when actively engaged in the creative arts process. I also emphasized that it is the human being, not the art activity, that should be at the center of the experience. My objective remains unchanged.
This new edition presents a comprehensive and up-to-date survey of professional research, while continuing to provide links between theory and practice. The approach is one of nudging teachers to attend to the importance of research and contemporary thought regarding the arts. At the same time, the narrative frames complex theoretical ideas in ways that are meaningful and significant to the adult who has chosen teaching as a profession.
Throughout the book I use the word teacher to describe the adult who is charged with the care and well-being of children. When I refer to teachers, I am including the preservice college student enrolled in a teacher education program, the student teacher embarking on a teaching career, practicing teachers, master teachers, college professors, and other professionals who are dedicated to enriching the lives of children.
The teacher is essential in helping children find venues for creative expression and growth, and once teachers tap into their own creativity, they are better equipped to assist children with creative expression that is appropriate to their own developmental potentials. What this edition does, then, is move the teacher away from a reliance on prescribed activities and an endless array of uniform products toward a more secure sense of everyone's ability to engage in the creative processregardless of product. And how do we accomplish this?
The overall framework through which this information is presented follows the continuum of the affective domaina developmental framework that moves you along on your journey to becoming a teacher or to becoming a more enlightened and articulate, experienced teacher. As you move through the chapters, and the continuum, you will progress from the basic, first levels of affective development to the highest. Your awareness of your growth through these levels will heighten your sense of your own creative abilities and those of your students. The organization and structure of the book, in addition to features in the chapters that support the development of creativity, will also contribute to your learning and growth.
Organization and Structure
Chapter 1 of the text presents four statements summarizing the central themes and ideas about the creative arts that are woven throughout the book. Chapters 2 through 7 are organized into specific categories of the creative arts: exploring feelings and images, introducing music and movement, celebrating the visual arts, encouraging play and creative drama, experimenting with three-dimensional art, and planning for literature. Chapter 8 considers two topics of general importance to all teachers: building a bridge between self-understanding and creativity, and the self-actualization of teachers.
Each chapter begins with a true story, collected from my own years as a teacher and from the experiences of practicing teachers and student teachers. These stories set the stage for each chapter and highlight children's involvement in the creative arts process in real-life settings. These glimpses into the creative activity of children can serve as discussion starters for introducing, overviewing, concluding, or reviewing concepts, and they give you a wide range of experiences to observe and upon which to reflect.
Special Content Coverage
Each chapter also presents, in separate sections, overviews of four important components of the learning environments in today's classrooms: developmentally appropriate practice, children with special needs, personal and professional growth of teachers, and viewing the arts through a multicultural context. The sections on developmentally appropriate practice present concrete experiences and ways to maintain practice appropriate to the developmental levels of children. Sections dealing with students with special needs discuss how to provide creative arts experiences for all the children in your classroom. The Personal and Professional Growth feature in each chapter includes experiential exercises that relate to your personal and professional experiences and enable you to understand creative arts concepts as they relate to your personal life. Each chapter also includes an expanded discussion of Gardner's multiple intelligences theory as well as coverage of global art, which introduces you and your children to the richness of the arts found around the world.
Appendices on children's literature, songs, and fingerplays provide a ready resource for hands-on creative arts experiences for teachers and children. These resources offer a quick reference for locating materials for use in classrooms, many of which are mentioned throughout the book.
More than 250 references to the professional literature are cited in the book, and a complete list appears at the end of the text. This reference list provides a compendium of recent research and up-to-date work in the field of the creative arts. More than 50 new citations have been added to this third edition, which reflect the expansion of the base of theory and research that supports the creative arts.
New to This Edition
Many changes and major revisions to the third edition provide a comprehensive look at the creative arts and how the arts can expand our understanding of the teaching and learning process.
New Content Coverage
Exploring the arts through a multicultural context
The arts are ideally suited to address the wonderful diversity of children in today's schools. The arts provide teachers with a multicultural avenue for seeing diversity from viewpoints that may be different from our own and also give us some of the tools we need to meet the different learning modalities of children. A new focus on viewing the arts through a multicultural context is included in this third edition to highlight its great potential as a resource for creative expression and awareness of the diversity of global arts.
Contemporary theories and models
This third edition is made more complete by expanded coverage of Lev Vygotsky and Rhoda Kellogg. Vygotsky's work provides a foundation for understanding the social formation of learning. Kellogg's research is noteworthy in that she studied over a million pieces of children's drawings that she collected from around the world. As a result, she identified several stages of development that are universal to all children.
National standards for art education
The section on national standards for the visual and performing arts provides more in-depth coverage on wiry we must look to these standards as challenges for bringing the arts back into the mainstream of essential subject areas. It also addresses how we, as teachers and teacher educators, are in a unique position to do just that. In addition, new coverage on the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities is included, which addresses the interconnection between the arts, culture, and democracy.
Multiple intelligences theory
Since the publication of the second edition, Howard Gardner has expanded his theory of multiple intelligences to include an eighth intelligence: naturalist intelligence. This eighth intelligence is addressed in this new edition and includes a section on how we, as teachers, can support naturalist intelligence in the classroom. Gardner's eight intelligences provide a framework for approaching multiple intelligences theory and the implications of this theory for creative arts education. Each chapter also presents an area of multiple intelligences theory in concert with creative arts contents. For example, the chapter on creative drama is grounded in interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences.
More than ever before, research studies and theoretical contributions provide a comprehensive view of why the arts are an integral component of education for all learners, especially children. To accurately reflect this growth, current and relevant research is included in this new edition to provide the foundation for continued study of the arts. Practical articles and references to which teachers can refer for additional information are also provided.
The book also supports your learning through the use of margin notes that provide suggestions and alternative ways for reinforcing and enriching your learning. These are particularly helpful for outside assignments; extended research; classroom arrangement; individual, cooperative, and large-group activities; and as suggestions for establishing professional contacts with artists outside the field of education.
I hope you will find this third edition of The Creative Arts: A Process Approach for Teachers and Children an informative and challenging approach to your role as a facilitator of the creative arts process in your own child-centered school arena. If you are new to teaching, you will find avenues for structuring your first classroom environment to create an inviting atmosphere in which your children will have not only the freedom but also the permission to explore the process of creativity through many art forms. For those of you who are experienced teachers, I hope this book will give you the courage to break away from the old confines of having all children draw, make, move, or create the same thing at the same time. You will be encouraged to view the arts as an orchestral score, with much room for interpretation. This view of the creative arts provides an endless range for educators to contribute to the development of each child's inherent artistic potential. Whether we are aspiring teachers, seasoned educators, day-care providers, or college professors, we need to be open to examining a significant departure from the way creative arts are typically taught in teacher education programs, and we need to recognize the role of the adult in facilitating children's development as artists and as creative thinkers.
Many people inspired me as I was writing the third edition, and it has been enhanced by the combined efforts of a talented team of professionals at Merrill/Prentice Hall. My editor, Ann Castel Davis, provided thoughtful support and encouragement, journeys real and imagined to beautiful places, and treasured words of wisdom and experience. I am deeply indebted to Ann for her insight and foresight, her enthusiasm, and her faith in my writing and in this book.
This third edition was greatly enhanced by the talent and creativity of Sheryl Langner, my production editor at Merrill/Prentice Hall. The text design talent and the expertise of Amy Gehl and the production and editorial staff at Carlisle Communications, Ltd. are apparent in the book's presentation and appearance.
I was also fortunate to have the insightful suggestions of my friend Margaret W. Humphreys, the Director of the Early Childhood Development Center (E.C.D.C.), College of Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina and the talented teachers at the ECDC, including Phyllis Gates, Richard Latham, Pam Ohlandt, and Mary White, who shared their stories of children with me. I owe a debt of gratitude to Susan Gurganus, The College of Charleston, for her important contributions to the sections on children with special needs. In addition, a very special first-grade teacher, Jane Schuler, is acknowledged and thanked for the illustrations she drew for the sections on Multicultural Arts in Context.
I would like to express my sincere appreciation to the following professors, who provided timely and helpful reviews of the manuscript: Audrey W. Beard, Albany State University (GA); Pamela O. Fleege, University of South Florida; Jan McLanahan, North Shore Community College (MA); Debra G. Murphy, Cape Cod Community College (MA); and Mary Ann Walden (TX).
I appreciate and wish to acknowledge the support of friends and colleagues who provided guidance with grace during the writing process: Cavas Gobhai, Jane Schuler, Annette Godow, Peter Yaun, Martha Nabors, Helen Gorini, and Nancy Sorenson. I also owe a great deal of thanks to Rebecca Isbell and Karen Paciorek for providing collegial and personal support. I appreciate the help provided by graduate assistants Holli Weiskittel, Heather Davis, Claudia Hucks, and Jay Hughs. I am especially grateful for the talent and thoroughness of Amy Renahan and Maggie North. They are stalwarts of our profession.
Finally, I wish to express my deepest appreciation to my family. I am especially grateful for their encouragement, support, and understanding during the time it took to develop this third edition.
Linda Carol Edwards
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
This book is a very useful tool for incorporating arts into the regular curriculum. The book is easy to read and gives excellent examples and ideas for teachers to get their students interested in the arts and able to express their understanding of the curriculum in new ways.