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Brookings Institution Press
Chile: The Great Transformation

Chile: The Great Transformation

by Javier Martinez, Alvaro Diaz


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Chile is frequently cited as a remarkable success story of neoliberal economic restructuring. In fact, countries around the world are encouraged to follow the Chilean model so that they can reap the extraordinary benefits of rapid growth and expanding export markets associated with the drastic economic reform in Chile. But the Chilean experience is extremely complicated and contradictory.

The international discussion on economic restructuring in Latin America often runs on two tracks: one dominated by consultants and scholars from the English-speaking world and another in which Latin Americans talk to each other. This book attempts to bridge the gap.

Two outstanding Chilean scholars and activists present an original interpretation of the Chilean experience. They cut through the rhetoric surrounding "the Chilean miracle" and provide an integrated analysis of the process of socioeconomic and political change that transformed their country between 1970 and 1990. In so doing, they discover not only a neoliberal revolution, but a capitalist revolution with roots far deeper than the Pinochet reforms.

The book provides a valuable resource for people around the world who hope to understand the principal "success story" of Latin American adjustment. Copublished with the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780815754770
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
Publication date: 05/01/1996
Pages: 160
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.40(d)

About the Author

Javier Martinez is a Chilean sociologist and political scientist and a founding member of the independent Santiago research institute SUR. Alvaro Diaz is a Chilean economist and executive director of the Program on Technological Innovation and Development, Chilean Ministry of the Economy, and a research associate at SUR.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1Politics: From Dictatorship to Democracy8
The Terror12
The Uprising18
Chapter 2The Economy: From the State to the Market41
The State and Elites42
Rupture and Continuity, 1964-9044
The Background of Free-Market Reform in Chile45
The Main Phases of Political Economy, 1973-9047
Principal Neoliberal Reforms, 1973-9049
The Liberation and Expansion of Market Forces56
The Myth of the "Subsidiary" State65
Institutional Transformations67
The Concentration of Power and Income73
Chapter 3The Actors: From Classes to Elites75
The Business Gremios76
A Civilian Technocracy: The "Chicago Boys"81
The New Financial-Economic Groups87
A Corporate Interlude94
The Decline of the Elite98
Chapter 4Restructuring and the New Working Classes101
The New Waged Employment102
The New Informality110
Patterns of Change in the Services Sector115
The New Social Character of Poverty124
Chapter 5A Capitalist Revolution130
The Neoliberal Reorientation of Previous Reforms131
The Role of the Elites: From Revolution to Moderation136
Structures, Movements, and Social Actors138
The 1990s: Waiting for the New Actors141
Basic Economic Indicators, Selected Years, 1974-95
Phases of Neoliberal Economic Policy, 1973-90
Integration into the World Economy, Selected Years, 1974-95
Population in Waged Employment, by Sector, Selected Periods, 1976-92
Urban and Rural Waged Work, Selected Periods, 1976-92
Average Annual Rates of Growth in the Urban Informal Sector, Selected Periods, 1960-90
Estimation of Spurious Service-Sector Employment, Selected Years, 1970-90
Employment in the Nonfinancial Public Administrative Sector, Selected Years, 1976-90
Employment in Financial Services, Selected Years, 1976-90
Per Capita GDP, 1970-95
Waged Workers, as Percentage of Employed Population, 1976-94
Employers and Waged Workers, 1976-94
Urban Informal Sector, 1976-94
Employment in the Services Sector, 1970-94

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