In recent years mineralogy has developed even stronger links with solid-state chemistry and physics and these developments have been accompanied by a trend towards further quantification in the theoretical as well as the experimental aspects of the subject. The importance of solid-state chemistry to mineralogy was reflected in a symposium held at the 1982 Annual Congress of The Royal Society of Chemistry at which the original versions of most of the contributions to this book were presented. The meeting brought together chemists, geologists and mineralogists all of whom were interested in the application of modern spectroscopic techniques to the study of bonding in minerals. The interdisci plinary nature of the symposium enabled a beneficial exchange of information from the various fields and it was felt that a book presenting reviews of the key areas of the subject would be a useful addition to both the chemical and mineralogical literature. The field of study which is commonly termed the 'physics and chemistry of minerals' has itself developed very rapidly over recent years. Such rapid development has resulted in many chemists, geologists, geochemists and mineralogists being less familiar than they might wish with the techniques currently available. Central to this field is an understanding of chemical bonding or 'electronic structure' in minerals which has been developed both theoretically and by the use of spectroscopic techniques.
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Table of Contents1 Quantum Mechanical Models and Methods in Mineralogy.- 1.1 Introduction.- 1.2 Full lattice calculations.- 1.3 Cluster calculations on mineral structural properties.- 1.4 Cluster calculations on mineral spectral properties.- 1.5 Cluster calculations of valence electron density distributions.- 1.6 Applications of qualitative MO theory.- 1.7 Conclusions.- Acknowledgements.- References.- 2 X-ray Spectroscopy and Chemical Bonding in Minerals.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Photoelectron and X-ray spectroscopy.- 2.3 Spectroscopic techniques.- 2.4 Application of XES and XPS to bonding studies in mineral chemistry.- 2.5 Further developments.- 2.6 Conclusions.- References.- 3 Electronic Spectra of Minerals.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Background.- 3.3 Techniques.- 3.4 Crystal field spectra.- 3.5 Intervalence transitions.- 3.6 Applications.- 3.7 Summary.- References.- 4 Mineralogical Applications of Luminescence Techniques.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 The luminescence process.- 4.3 Experimental techniques.- 4.4 Luminescence centres in some common minerals.- 4.5 Some conclusions.- References 138.- 5 Mössbauer Spectroscopy in Mineral Chemistry.- 5.1 The basis of Mössbauer spectroscopy.- 5.2 The hyperfine interactions.- 5.3 The Mössbauer factor, f, and the intensity of the absorption lines.- 5.457Fe Mössbauer parameters and deductions from such data.- 5.5 Experimental details.- 5.6 Mineralogical applications.- 5.7 Antimony.- 5.8 Other physical studies.- References.- 6 Electron Spin Resonance and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Applied to Minerals.- 6.1 Electron spin resonance spectroscopy.- 6.2 Practical aspects of ESR.- 6.3 Some applications of ESR in mineral chemistry.- 6.4 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.- 6.5 NMR of solids.- 6.6 Applications.- 6.7 High resolution NMR studies of minerals.- 6.8 Conclusion.- Acknowledgement.- References.- 7 Spectroscopy and Chemical Bonding in the Opaque Minerals.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 Compositions and crystal structures of the major opaque minerals.- 7.3 Approaches to chemical bonding models.- 7.4 Experimental methods for the study of bonding.- 7.5 Chemical bonding in some major opaque mineral groups.- 7.6 Concluding remarks.- References.- 8 Mineral Surfaces and the Chemical Bond.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 Spectroscopic techniques.- 8.3 Applications in mineral chemistry.- 8.4 Concluding remarks.- References.