A Whole-System Approach to High Performance Green Buildings

A Whole-System Approach to High Performance Green Buildings

by David Strong, Victoria Burrows

Hardcover

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Overview

This authoritative new resource provides a comprehensive review of the current approaches to the design and construction of sustainable buildings. This hand-on guide features global case studies with practical examples of both successful and unsuccessful designs.

The whole system approach to integrated design is clearly presented. This book includes insight into designing for the future, including design quality and future proofing, intelligent buildings, and whole life value. Nature inspired sustainable designs that can be mimicked in the construction industry are presented. Technical challenges such as energy efficiency, design, and computer modeling are explored along with various construction phase opportunities.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781608079599
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/31/2016
Pages: 292
Product dimensions: 7.20(w) x 10.20(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

David Strong is currently a director of David Strong Consulting and chairman of REAL Assurance Ltd. He received his PhD. from Oxford University and his BSc in building engineering from Bath University. He was awarded the Building Sustainability Leadership Award for establishing the UK Green Building Council.

Victoria Burrows is currently the head of sustainability for a major international contractor. She received her BSc in architecture and environmental design from the University of Nottingham and her International Baccalaureate diploma from Henley College, UK.

Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Chapter 1 Scope and Scale of the Challenge 1

1.1 Impact of the Built Environment 1

1.2 The Emerging Market Drivers and Demand for Sustainable Buildings 2

1.3 Thought Leadership and the World Green Building Movement 3

1.3.1 Building Environmental Assessment Methods 3

1.3.2 Trends 4

1.3.3 Common International Assessment Methodology 5

1.3.4 Differences Among Schemes 6

1.3.5 Certification-Barrier or Enabler for Integrative Design? 11

1.3.6 Pushing the Boundaries 12

1.4 Creating a Market Pull for Sustainable Buildings 13

1.4.1 Responding to Client and Occupant Requirements 13

1.4.2 Growing Awareness That "Green" Buildings Pay 15

1.5 Compliance Drivers 16

1.5.1 Zero-Energy and Nearly Zero-Energy/Carbon Buildings 18

1.6 Whole System Thinking 19

Ten Key Methods for Achieving Sustainable Design and Operations Outcomes 19

References 20

Chapter 2 Whole System Approach 23

2.1 What Is "Whole System Thinking" 24

2.1.1 Integrating the Design Process 24

2.1.2 IDP Design Team Organization 27

2.1.3 Benefits of Integrative, Collaborative, Multidisciplinary Design Team Engagement 27

2.2 Identifying and Exploiting the Opportunities for CAPEX and OPEX Reductions Offered by a Whole System Approach 28

2.2.1 Tunneling Through Cost Barriers 30

PassivHaus Standard 31

2.3 Avoiding Pitfalls 32

2.3.1 Risks of Relying on Overly Complex Technologies 32

2.3.2 Benefits of Adopting an Eco-Minimalistic Approach to Design 33

2.3.3 Closing the Performance Gap 34

Portcullis House 35

Portcullis House Key Lessons 36

2.4 Delivering Buildings Pit for People and the Planet 36

2.4.1 Human Health, Productivity, and Well-Being 36

2.4.2 Daylight 39

2.5 The Importance of Good Metrics 41

Achieving a High-Energy Performance Commercial Building 43

2.5.1 Measurement and Monitoring 44

2.6 Sustainable Construction Material Selection and Specification 44

2.6.1 What Is a Sustainable Construction Material? 44

2.6.2 What Environmental Impacts Ate Associated with Construction Products? 45

2.6.3 Sustainable Construction Materials Assessment 45

2.6.4 Reducing Embodied Impacts at the Building Level 46

2.6.5 Sustainable Construction Materials and the Supply Chain 47

2.6.6 Other Approaches to Sustainable Material Selection 48

References 49

Chapter 3 Designing for the Future: Design Quality and Future Proofing, Intelligent Buildings, Whole Life Value, and Closing the Performance Gap 51

3.1 Knowing Where You Want to Go 51

3.1.1 Establishing Goals, Targets, and Metrics 51

3.1.2 How Long Will Your Building Last? 52

3.2 Design Quality and Future Proofing 52

3.2.1 Overview 52

3.2.2 Green Vitruvius 53

3.2.3 The Fourth Dimension 53

Form Follows Function: London 2012 Olympic Park 54

3.2.4 Project Briefing and Communication 54

3.3 Intelligent Buildings 55

3.3.1 What Is an Intelligent Building? 55

3.3.2 Intelligent Building Guidelines 56

3.3.3 Key Criteria for Intelligent Buildings 58

3.3.4 Guidelines for Planning, Designing, and Managing Intelligent Buildings 59

3.4 Whole Life Value and Service Life Design: Economic Opportunities and Analysis 60

3.4.1 Introduction 60

3.4.2 Life Cycle Costing as Part of an Integrated Assessment of Sustainability 61

3.4.3 The Process of Assessing LCC as Part of Sustainable Procurement and Design 63

3.4.4 Key Focus Areas for Economic Assessment of Integrated Sustainability 64

3.5 Adopting "Soft Landings" to Ensure Buildings Perform Better in Use 65

3.5.1 Helping Clients 67

3.5.2 Helping Design Teams 68

3.5.3 Helping Contractors 69

3.5.4 Helping Building Occupiers and Managers 70

References 71

Chapter 4 Working with Nature and Natural Systems 73

4.1 Introduction to Biodimatic Design 73

4.1.1 Climate-Excluding Versus Climate-Adaptive Buildings 73

4.1.2 Biodimatic Design: Learning from Vernacular Architecture 74

4.2 Biomimicry: Learning from Nature 75

4.2.1 What Is Biomimicry? 75

4.2.2 Inspiration from Natural Forms 76

4.2.3 Inspiration from Natural Systems 77

4.2.4 Inspiration from Natural Processes 77

4.2.5 Conclusions 78

4.3 Green Roofs and Living Walls 79

4.3.1 Building-Integrated Vegetation 79

4.3.2 The Benefits of Building-Integrated Vegetation 81

4.3.3 Design Stage Opportunities and Risks 82

4.3.4 Operational Issues 83

4.4 Preserving and Enhancing Biodiversity in the Built Environment 84

4.4.1 What Is Biodiversity? 84

4.4.2 Biodiversity and Sustainable Buildings 84

4.4.3 Green and Blue Spaces 85

4.4.4 Biodiversity: Key Issues 85

4.4.5 Building Biodiversity 87

4.4.6 Legislative Drivers 87

References 89

Chapter 5 Energy-Optimizing Architectural Design and Engineering 91

5.1 Whole System/Whole Building Optimization 91

5.1.1 Step 0: Location, Location, Location 93

5.1.2 Step 1: Fabric First! 94

5.1.3 Step 2: Explore the Potential Offered by Passive Solutions 95

5.1.4 Step 3: Ensure All Active Energy Systems Are Highly Efficient 98

5.1.5 Step 4: Consider the On-Site Renewable Energy Generation Options 102

5.2 Sustainability of the Building Envelope 105

5.2.1 Introduction 105

5.2.2 Building Envelope Fundamentals 106

5.3 Optimizing Indoor Environmental Quality 108

5.3.1 Introduction 108

5.3.2 Thermal Comfort 110

5.3.3 Visual Comfort 111

5.3.4 Indoor Air Quality 112

5.3.5 Acoustic Environment 112

5.4 Effective Building Control and Monitoring 113

5.4.1 Introduction 113

5.4.2 Maximizing BMS Effectiveness 114

5.5 Low-Friction, Low-Pressure-Loss Engineering 115

5.5.1 Reducing the Environmental Impact of Moving Air and Water Around Buildings 115

5.5.2 Why Design for Low Friction and Low Pressure Loss? 116

5.5.3 Duct and Pipe Sizing: The Importance of Forensic Attention to Detail 117

5.5.4 Ductwork Layout 119

5.5.5 Pipework Layout and Design 121

5.5.6 Embodied Carbon Considerations 121

Case Study: How Modifying Typical Ductwork Layout and Specification Can Reduce Fan Power Requirement (and Operational Cost) by Over 80% 123

References 126

Chapter 6 Modeling and Simulation as a Design Tool 127

6.1 How Modeling Can Help Design Better Buildings 127

6.2 Determining Peak Loads 128

6.2.1 How Are Peak Loads Useful? 128

6.2.2 Applying the Peak Load Values in Practice 128

6.3 HVAC Sizing: Doing Better Than Rules of Thumb 130

6.3.1 Why Is HVAC Sizing Useful? 130

6.3.2 Studying HVAC Sizing in Practice 130

6.4 Natural Ventilation Design with Analysis 131

6.4.1 Getting to a Natural Ventilation Design That Works 132

6.4.2 Testing the Natural Ventilation Opening Size Requirements for Windows 134

6.5 Adding Shading and Improving Glazing and Thermal Mass 134

6.6 Energy Analysis 134

6.6.1 Energy Analysis: Know Your Task 135

6.6.2 Energy Analysis: Workflow 136

6.6.3 Renewable Energy Generation 136

6.7 Daylight Analysis: How to Interpret the Pretty Pictures 138

6.7.1 Daylight Analysis: What Is the Goal of the Design Exercise? 138

6.7.2 Daylight Analysis: Annual Versus Instant Analysis 138

6.8 Glare Analysis 141

6.8.1 A Simple Methodology for Using Glare Calculations 142

6.8.2 Direct Sun 142

6.9 Sun Path Diagrams 142

6.9.1 How to Use Sun Path Diagrams as a Design Tool 143

6.9.2 Seasonal or Annual Average Direct Sun 144

6.10 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) 144

6.10.1 How CFD Works 145

6.10.2 CFD Limitations 146

References 146

Chapter 7 Water: Efficient Use, Sustainable Waste Water Treatment, and Management 147

7.1 Design for Water-Efficient Buildings 147

7.1.1 Reducing Demand 148

7.1.2 Efficient Servicing Strategies 148

7.1.3 Other Considerations 150

7.1.4 Water Efficiency in Domestic Properties 151

7.2 Sustainable Drainage Design for Developments 154

7.2.1 Composition of Foul Drainage 154

7.2.2 Problems with Present Practice 155

7.2.3 Solutions 156

7.2.4 The Design of Ecological Treatment Systems 156

7.2.5 Types of Natural Treatment Systems 159

7.2.6 Natural Solid Waste Treatment 160

7.2.7 Surface Water Attenuation, Management, and Treatment 162

7.2.8 Key Principles of SuDS 163

7.2.9 The Need for Treatment of Surface Water 164

7.2.10 Construction 166

References 166

Chapter 8 Construction Phase Opportunities 169

8.1 Embracing Change 169

8.2 Legislative Drivers and Statutory Obligations 170

8.3 Procurement 171

8.4 Construction Documentation 171

8.5 Waste Management 173

8.5.1 Waste Management Versus Waste Reduction 173

8.5.2 The Waste Hierarchy 176

Building Information Modeling 177

Case Study: Recycling and Improvisation, London 2012 Olympic Stadium 178

Case Study: Deconstruction of IOC Headquarters, Lausanne 180

8.5.3 Strategy Success 180

8.5.4 Circular Economy 181

Case Study: ArcelorMittal 182

8.6 Efficient On-Site Operations 183

8.6.1 Energy 183

8.6.2 Water 185

8.6.3 Site Logistics 185

8.7 Pollution Prevention 186

8.7.1 Water Pollution 186

8.7.2 Air Pollution 187

8.7.3 Other Pollution Sources 188

8.8 Other Considerations 188

8.8.1 Community Engagement 188

8.8.2 Biodiversity 189

8.8.3 Transportation 189

8.8.4 Cloud Collaboration 190

8.8.5 Achieving Buy-In 190

8.8.6 Training and Education 191

8.8.7 Commissioning and Testing 191

8.9 Green Building Certification Schemes 192

8.10 Collaboration Is Key 193

References 193

Chapter 9 Post-Construction 197

9.1 Post-Construction Evaluation: Closing the Gap Between Design Intent and Actual Performance 197

9.1.1 Introduction 197

9.1.2 The Need for Project Feedback 197

9.1.3 Post-Occupancy Evaluation 198

9.1.4 Making Feedback and POP Routine 198

9.1.5 What Range of Techniques Can Be Used? 199

9.1.6 What Should We Be Thinking About? 199

9.2 Design Quality Method 201

9.3 Optimize Operational and Maintenance Practices 201

9.4 Continuous Commissioning 202

9.4.1 Continuous Commissioning Stages 202

9.4.2 The CC Process 203

9.4.3 Detailed Investigation and Implementation Plan 205

9.4.4 Implementation 208

9.4.5 Summary 209

References 209

Chapter 10 Case Studies 211

10.1 The Bullitt Center, Seattle, Washington 211

10.1.1 Context 211

10.1.2 Aligned from the Start 213

10.1.3 Replicability of Processes 214

10.1.4 Challenging Traditional Concepts 216

10.1.5 Endnote 217

10.2 RMI Innovation Center, Basalt, Colorado 218

10.2.1 Context 218

10.2.2 Passive Design Strategies 219

10.2.3 Thermal Comfort Design Parameters 220

10.2.4 Endnote 222

10.3 The Brock Environmental Center, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia 223

10.3.1 Context 223

10.3.2 Iterative Design 224

10.3.3 Active Systems 226

A Different Approach for Life Cycle Cost Assessment 226

10.3.4 Innovations 226

10.3.5 Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE) 228

10.3.6 Endnote 229

10.4 Elmsbrook, Oxfordshire, U.K. 230

10.4.1 Context 230

10.4.2 One Planet Community 231

10.4.3 A True Zero-Carbon Community 232

10.4.4 Zero Waste 232

10.4.5 Sustainable Transport 233

10.4.6 Sustainable Water 233

10.4.7 Endnote 233

10.5 Park 20120, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 234

10.5.1 Context 234

10.5.2 Applying Cradle to Cradle 236

10.5.3 Innovation 237

10.5.4 Endnote 238

10.6 Hotel Verde, Cape Town, South Africa 238

10.6.1 Context 238

10.6.2 Design Features 239

10.6.3 Construction 242

10.6.4 Operational Impacts 242

10.6.5 Endnote 243

10.7 The Sheikh Zayed Desert Learning Center, Abu Dhabi 244

10.7.1 Context 244

10.7.2 Sustainability Innovations 246

10.7.3 Water Usage and Minimization 247

10.7.4 Building Management System 248

10.7.5 Endnote 248

10.8 Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore 248

10.8.1 Context 248

10.8.2 IDP at KTPH 249

10.8.3 Healing Environment 251

10.8.4 Endnote 253

10.9 Council House 2, Melbourne, Australia 254

10.9.1 Context 254

10.9.2 Design Development 255

10.9.3 Post-Occupancy Studies 255

10.9.4 Lessons Learned 257

10.9.5 Endnote 257

References 259

About the Authors 263

Contributing Authors 264

Case Study Contributors 264

Index 265

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